November 21, 2017, 1:06 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07222 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.23697 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.035 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34334 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02609 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.035 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03933 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.63992 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03265 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00741 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.27689 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02668 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13491 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06405 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28171 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20626 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 393.707 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03929 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0252 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01953 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.51721 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13055 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 59.27237 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.06096 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.84798 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42782 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.47748 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12472 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93215 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.25679 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26216 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34612 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53196 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01676 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0411 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01485 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01485 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.09043 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92566 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 176.89283 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14439 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.01731 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15359 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46264 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12608 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.21691 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.23442 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 266.33236 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06904 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28012 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.94985 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 692.86138 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03638 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.46903 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01391 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.2151 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03441 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37082 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 78.99705 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.32547 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.69912 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.59685 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00593 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01613 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.50443 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.16618 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.60669 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.02262 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.44897 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2763 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05995 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0122 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02689 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18578 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34307 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.02635 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.80433 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.94494 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15822 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.90266 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6647 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30619 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.0885 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37348 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08155 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27622 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.00098 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60177 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16317 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03638 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02891 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00756 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06359 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06374 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06568 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07087 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 110.87513 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07473 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07785 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.16841 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.36755 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07374 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15449 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26735 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13097 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16686 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0267 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01486 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4367 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.85251 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.99312 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 410.64307 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17207 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.12743 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27624 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64562 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04905 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04547 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07723 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13037 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59133 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.93314 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51976 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.28811 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57699 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 158.89873 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19617 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 446.39136 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.10089 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05108 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.98368 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0531 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.988 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.98682 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.91504 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2763 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 102.05507 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.11701 Zimbabwe dollar

Zeigarnik Effect

IN 1942, when I was 17, I was riding my bike and I passed by a Japanese sentry. I was halted for only bowing my head versus stopping, getting off my bike, and bowing to him. He slapped me hard in the face several times, and I was punched with fists by the other guards, poked with bayonets, and made to bow over and over again. I had tears running down my cheeks from the humiliation of bowing and bowing while the Japanese soldiers continued laughing as they shouted at me to bend countless times. I vowed then to myself that i would join the guerrillas to fight the Japanese.”

This is an excerpt from Miguel Perez-Rubio’s memoirs that was launched last Monday, 16 October 2017, at the Ayala Museum.

“When I turned 19, I formally joined Barrion’s Guerillas. I joined with Johnny Ysmael, brother of my girlfriend Luisa. My family never knew for sure where I would often disappear to. I intended to tell my parents that I had joined the guerrillas, and that they would not be seeing me anymore until Manila was Liberated.”

Entitled “Nine Lives: The Reminiscences of Miguel A. Perez-Rubio,” it is a testimony of Filipino fortitude during the Anti-Fascist War (similar to the Dunkirk spirit).

“I hoped to convince my brother Carlos to join me. There was only one condition before he fully accepted. He would talk to our Father about our plans – he would not come if our Father told him ‘NO’. As he emerged from the meeting with Father, I could read in his face that he was not coming with me.

“I was nervous to talk to father, but I resolved no matter what, I was leaving to fight the Japanese. My father understood, but said that I should wait until I was called to arms by the Philippine Army. I told him that Manila would be defended fiercely by the Japanese. I knew they were building pill boxes and bunkers, and a large contingent of Japanese Marines had moved into the Rizal Stadium close by, where they were digging trenches and building up a defensive position. He said he would take his chances in Manila, despite an invitation by the Roxases to go with them to Nasugbu, Batangas. Finally, I said my companions were waiting for me and I had to leave for good until Manila was liberated. I asked for a small suitcase. No kiss…no embrace…no smiles – Only. An. Adios.”

Miguel Perez-Rubio survived World War II and went on to serve his country with distinction as Chief of Protocol and Special Consultant on Foreign Affairs to three Presidents of the Republic. His “Reminiscences” (which was launched by his clan and the Filipinas Heritage Library) shows the power of narrative and the utility of sharing experiences.

This is the same point raised by leadership and management guru Warren G. Bennis who had fought in the Battle of the Bulge: “No matter how many newsreels and mini-series about the war you’ve seen, you can’t imagine how terrible it felt. That misery was reserved for those in combat. The first shock was the cold. The cold that winter was wet, wind-driven, brutal, relentless...For the infantry, who lived mostly outdoors, the cold was as real an enemy as the Germans. We were never truly warm that winter, and we shivered in the dark most of the time.”

“Our orders were to capture or kill German soldiers and to clear the towns they had occupied and reluctantly abandoned as they retreated. When we were on the march, which was most of the time, we were cold, wet, exhausted, and often hungry, desperate for anything hot. And we were often filthy – showers were as rare as hot meals.” [Warren G. Bennis. Still Surprised: A Memoirs of a Life in Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010, p.7]

Bennis emphasized in his writings on management the skills and attitude acquired in combat. So did MacArthur: “Leadership is often crystallized in some sort of public gesture…In war, to be effective it must take the form of a fraternity of danger welded between a commander and his troops by the common denominator of sharing the risk of sudden death.” [Douglas MacArthur. Reminiscences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964, p. 131] Is this true for the rank and file?

“What skills had the army given me? Well for one thing I had demonstrated that on a lucky day I could, unarmed, overpower an opponent charging with a fixed bayonet (the bayonet in a scabbard of course)...I quite enjoyed the camaraderie and I also appreciated the opportunity of living communally 24 hours a day, seven days a week, for six-and-a-half years. Nobody can keep their guard up for that protracted period and I was able to study uninhibited human behaviour first hand.” [Coming of Age: 1939-1946 by John Cox]
Other matters of interest this week:

(1) On a so-called revolutionary government: “I believe that any objective student of social forces will agree that these men did their best to create a traditional ‘mass movement’ to accomplish their aims. Such mass movements had been successful in the case of Russian Communism, German National Socialism, and Italian Fascism. All those movements sprang from the soil of postwar misery, the strivings for power, greed for the possessions of others, boredom with the routines of life, yearnings for adventure, or just frustration. These mass movements had many common characteristics. They exaggerated the miseries of the times. They condemned the existing economic and social systems as bankrupt. They cried, ‘Emergency! Emergency!’ They promised Utopia. They envisaged a national devil. They stifled criticism with smearing and misrepresentation through the powerful agencies of government propaganda. They subjugated the legislative and judicial arms and purged their own party oppositions. They spent public moneys in subsidies to pressure groups. They distributed patronage to their adherents. They sought ceaselessly for more power.” [The Memoirs Of Herbert Hoover: The Great Depression, 1929-1941. NY: The Macmillan Company, 1952, p. 355]

(2) Sponsored by the Constantino Foundation, the exhibit “Hidden In Plain Sight: A Celebration of Filipino Heroism, Macario Sakay, Lean Alejandro, and the Constantino Murals” was opened last Saturday, 14 October 2017, at the Bulwagan ng Dangal, University of the Philippines Diliman. Renato Redentor Constantino, Executive Director, Constantino Foundation, said that the two historic murals honoring the murdered heroes (Macario Sakay and Lean Alejandro) had been originally unveiled in the cities of Makati (Ospital ng Makati, Pembo) and San Juan (in the old City Hall) in order to observe the centennial of Philippine hero Macario Sakay’s execution as well as the 20th anniversary of the assassination of the young radical Lean Alejandro. This year, the Constantino Murals were re-collected in Quezon City in order to give the new generations the chance to view them in the context of contemporary events.
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