June 24, 2018, 11:07 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06901 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02912 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03401 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5072 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02524 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03345 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03758 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.57159 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03155 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00712 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 32.90079 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02526 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1289 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07111 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28053 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19402 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 376.17437 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03754 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02493 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01856 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.99061 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12218 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.75385 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.57591 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.77772 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41526 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.33615 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12016 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92728 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1963 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25225 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33484 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51146 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01612 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03918 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01416 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01417 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08979 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.87956 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 169.07178 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14072 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.87599 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14741 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44878 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11882 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24803 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.23224 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 264.43067 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06764 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27568 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.24728 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 798.38407 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03119 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.45509 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01333 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06417 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.89121 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28183 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 76.00526 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.92522 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 16.91094 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.86622 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00568 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01541 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.38595 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.00451 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.292 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98572 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.74709 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25254 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05728 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01166 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02548 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1786 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3177 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.98891 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.98647 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.97896 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15183 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.67042 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65295 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29256 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.4053 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37584 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07518 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25239 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.72679 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59207 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15205 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03401 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02719 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00723 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06134 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0609 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.28222 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06966 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.55769 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06839 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07509 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.18236 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 15.96073 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07046 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1479 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25235 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33738 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16635 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02551 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01417 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41725 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.94363 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.72905 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 394.98309 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16441 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.67644 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25202 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.61856 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04882 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04333 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08786 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12682 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56924 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 42.63435 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49267 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 72.51597 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59451 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 147.50094 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1499.4363 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 430.10147 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07159 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0488 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.56614 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05073 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.56614 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92165 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.69466 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25241 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 97.51033 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.80008 Zimbabwe dollar

Zeigarnik Effect

IN 1942, when I was 17, I was riding my bike and I passed by a Japanese sentry. I was halted for only bowing my head versus stopping, getting off my bike, and bowing to him. He slapped me hard in the face several times, and I was punched with fists by the other guards, poked with bayonets, and made to bow over and over again. I had tears running down my cheeks from the humiliation of bowing and bowing while the Japanese soldiers continued laughing as they shouted at me to bend countless times. I vowed then to myself that i would join the guerrillas to fight the Japanese.”

This is an excerpt from Miguel Perez-Rubio’s memoirs that was launched last Monday, 16 October 2017, at the Ayala Museum.

“When I turned 19, I formally joined Barrion’s Guerillas. I joined with Johnny Ysmael, brother of my girlfriend Luisa. My family never knew for sure where I would often disappear to. I intended to tell my parents that I had joined the guerrillas, and that they would not be seeing me anymore until Manila was Liberated.”

Entitled “Nine Lives: The Reminiscences of Miguel A. Perez-Rubio,” it is a testimony of Filipino fortitude during the Anti-Fascist War (similar to the Dunkirk spirit).

“I hoped to convince my brother Carlos to join me. There was only one condition before he fully accepted. He would talk to our Father about our plans – he would not come if our Father told him ‘NO’. As he emerged from the meeting with Father, I could read in his face that he was not coming with me.

“I was nervous to talk to father, but I resolved no matter what, I was leaving to fight the Japanese. My father understood, but said that I should wait until I was called to arms by the Philippine Army. I told him that Manila would be defended fiercely by the Japanese. I knew they were building pill boxes and bunkers, and a large contingent of Japanese Marines had moved into the Rizal Stadium close by, where they were digging trenches and building up a defensive position. He said he would take his chances in Manila, despite an invitation by the Roxases to go with them to Nasugbu, Batangas. Finally, I said my companions were waiting for me and I had to leave for good until Manila was liberated. I asked for a small suitcase. No kiss…no embrace…no smiles – Only. An. Adios.”

Miguel Perez-Rubio survived World War II and went on to serve his country with distinction as Chief of Protocol and Special Consultant on Foreign Affairs to three Presidents of the Republic. His “Reminiscences” (which was launched by his clan and the Filipinas Heritage Library) shows the power of narrative and the utility of sharing experiences.

This is the same point raised by leadership and management guru Warren G. Bennis who had fought in the Battle of the Bulge: “No matter how many newsreels and mini-series about the war you’ve seen, you can’t imagine how terrible it felt. That misery was reserved for those in combat. The first shock was the cold. The cold that winter was wet, wind-driven, brutal, relentless...For the infantry, who lived mostly outdoors, the cold was as real an enemy as the Germans. We were never truly warm that winter, and we shivered in the dark most of the time.”

“Our orders were to capture or kill German soldiers and to clear the towns they had occupied and reluctantly abandoned as they retreated. When we were on the march, which was most of the time, we were cold, wet, exhausted, and often hungry, desperate for anything hot. And we were often filthy – showers were as rare as hot meals.” [Warren G. Bennis. Still Surprised: A Memoirs of a Life in Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010, p.7]

Bennis emphasized in his writings on management the skills and attitude acquired in combat. So did MacArthur: “Leadership is often crystallized in some sort of public gesture…In war, to be effective it must take the form of a fraternity of danger welded between a commander and his troops by the common denominator of sharing the risk of sudden death.” [Douglas MacArthur. Reminiscences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964, p. 131] Is this true for the rank and file?

“What skills had the army given me? Well for one thing I had demonstrated that on a lucky day I could, unarmed, overpower an opponent charging with a fixed bayonet (the bayonet in a scabbard of course)...I quite enjoyed the camaraderie and I also appreciated the opportunity of living communally 24 hours a day, seven days a week, for six-and-a-half years. Nobody can keep their guard up for that protracted period and I was able to study uninhibited human behaviour first hand.” [Coming of Age: 1939-1946 by John Cox]
Other matters of interest this week:

(1) On a so-called revolutionary government: “I believe that any objective student of social forces will agree that these men did their best to create a traditional ‘mass movement’ to accomplish their aims. Such mass movements had been successful in the case of Russian Communism, German National Socialism, and Italian Fascism. All those movements sprang from the soil of postwar misery, the strivings for power, greed for the possessions of others, boredom with the routines of life, yearnings for adventure, or just frustration. These mass movements had many common characteristics. They exaggerated the miseries of the times. They condemned the existing economic and social systems as bankrupt. They cried, ‘Emergency! Emergency!’ They promised Utopia. They envisaged a national devil. They stifled criticism with smearing and misrepresentation through the powerful agencies of government propaganda. They subjugated the legislative and judicial arms and purged their own party oppositions. They spent public moneys in subsidies to pressure groups. They distributed patronage to their adherents. They sought ceaselessly for more power.” [The Memoirs Of Herbert Hoover: The Great Depression, 1929-1941. NY: The Macmillan Company, 1952, p. 355]

(2) Sponsored by the Constantino Foundation, the exhibit “Hidden In Plain Sight: A Celebration of Filipino Heroism, Macario Sakay, Lean Alejandro, and the Constantino Murals” was opened last Saturday, 14 October 2017, at the Bulwagan ng Dangal, University of the Philippines Diliman. Renato Redentor Constantino, Executive Director, Constantino Foundation, said that the two historic murals honoring the murdered heroes (Macario Sakay and Lean Alejandro) had been originally unveiled in the cities of Makati (Ospital ng Makati, Pembo) and San Juan (in the old City Hall) in order to observe the centennial of Philippine hero Macario Sakay’s execution as well as the 20th anniversary of the assassination of the young radical Lean Alejandro. This year, the Constantino Murals were re-collected in Quezon City in order to give the new generations the chance to view them in the context of contemporary events.
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