February 24, 2018, 12:13 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07045 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04297 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03415 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38059 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02443 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03415 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03837 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59409 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0304 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00723 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.58872 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02533 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13159 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06235 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2325 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18295 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 384.03989 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03832 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02429 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.018 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.42605 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12152 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.88202 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.87186 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.71801 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.39493 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.3921 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11601 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94226 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17652 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24369 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33858 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52177 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01557 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03825 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01371 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01377 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08533 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89967 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 172.74122 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14073 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.9296 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15011 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45024 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11584 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.216 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.85824 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 261.23153 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06714 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24329 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.71245 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 713.12103 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.9248 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.40936 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01359 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0619 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.9413 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.3061 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 77.09572 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.62709 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.26453 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.55496 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00575 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01573 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.12565 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.52676 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.96605 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.97621 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.45904 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22463 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05848 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0119 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02544 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17647 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31853 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.95396 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.47477 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.90946 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15451 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.71398 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.62536 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29868 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.76098 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35911 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07494 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22327 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.88663 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59477 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15035 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 1.98703 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02611 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00738 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06229 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0629 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.11989 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06472 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.82716 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06982 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07256 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.0862 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.12737 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07193 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14866 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2582 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34501 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15536 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02534 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01372 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42597 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.36485 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.78074 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 381.75523 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16785 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.87876 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22325 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60368 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04586 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0428 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07262 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12717 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.55966 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.06541 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51746 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 69.67197 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54556 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 156.62766 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 478.3426 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 435.71839 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 1.98465 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04817 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.20986 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05179 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.20986 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.85248 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.79474 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22325 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 99.5492 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.94226 Zimbabwe dollar

Zeigarnik Effect

IN 1942, when I was 17, I was riding my bike and I passed by a Japanese sentry. I was halted for only bowing my head versus stopping, getting off my bike, and bowing to him. He slapped me hard in the face several times, and I was punched with fists by the other guards, poked with bayonets, and made to bow over and over again. I had tears running down my cheeks from the humiliation of bowing and bowing while the Japanese soldiers continued laughing as they shouted at me to bend countless times. I vowed then to myself that i would join the guerrillas to fight the Japanese.”

This is an excerpt from Miguel Perez-Rubio’s memoirs that was launched last Monday, 16 October 2017, at the Ayala Museum.

“When I turned 19, I formally joined Barrion’s Guerillas. I joined with Johnny Ysmael, brother of my girlfriend Luisa. My family never knew for sure where I would often disappear to. I intended to tell my parents that I had joined the guerrillas, and that they would not be seeing me anymore until Manila was Liberated.”

Entitled “Nine Lives: The Reminiscences of Miguel A. Perez-Rubio,” it is a testimony of Filipino fortitude during the Anti-Fascist War (similar to the Dunkirk spirit).

“I hoped to convince my brother Carlos to join me. There was only one condition before he fully accepted. He would talk to our Father about our plans – he would not come if our Father told him ‘NO’. As he emerged from the meeting with Father, I could read in his face that he was not coming with me.

“I was nervous to talk to father, but I resolved no matter what, I was leaving to fight the Japanese. My father understood, but said that I should wait until I was called to arms by the Philippine Army. I told him that Manila would be defended fiercely by the Japanese. I knew they were building pill boxes and bunkers, and a large contingent of Japanese Marines had moved into the Rizal Stadium close by, where they were digging trenches and building up a defensive position. He said he would take his chances in Manila, despite an invitation by the Roxases to go with them to Nasugbu, Batangas. Finally, I said my companions were waiting for me and I had to leave for good until Manila was liberated. I asked for a small suitcase. No kiss…no embrace…no smiles – Only. An. Adios.”

Miguel Perez-Rubio survived World War II and went on to serve his country with distinction as Chief of Protocol and Special Consultant on Foreign Affairs to three Presidents of the Republic. His “Reminiscences” (which was launched by his clan and the Filipinas Heritage Library) shows the power of narrative and the utility of sharing experiences.

This is the same point raised by leadership and management guru Warren G. Bennis who had fought in the Battle of the Bulge: “No matter how many newsreels and mini-series about the war you’ve seen, you can’t imagine how terrible it felt. That misery was reserved for those in combat. The first shock was the cold. The cold that winter was wet, wind-driven, brutal, relentless...For the infantry, who lived mostly outdoors, the cold was as real an enemy as the Germans. We were never truly warm that winter, and we shivered in the dark most of the time.”

“Our orders were to capture or kill German soldiers and to clear the towns they had occupied and reluctantly abandoned as they retreated. When we were on the march, which was most of the time, we were cold, wet, exhausted, and often hungry, desperate for anything hot. And we were often filthy – showers were as rare as hot meals.” [Warren G. Bennis. Still Surprised: A Memoirs of a Life in Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010, p.7]

Bennis emphasized in his writings on management the skills and attitude acquired in combat. So did MacArthur: “Leadership is often crystallized in some sort of public gesture…In war, to be effective it must take the form of a fraternity of danger welded between a commander and his troops by the common denominator of sharing the risk of sudden death.” [Douglas MacArthur. Reminiscences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964, p. 131] Is this true for the rank and file?

“What skills had the army given me? Well for one thing I had demonstrated that on a lucky day I could, unarmed, overpower an opponent charging with a fixed bayonet (the bayonet in a scabbard of course)...I quite enjoyed the camaraderie and I also appreciated the opportunity of living communally 24 hours a day, seven days a week, for six-and-a-half years. Nobody can keep their guard up for that protracted period and I was able to study uninhibited human behaviour first hand.” [Coming of Age: 1939-1946 by John Cox]
Other matters of interest this week:

(1) On a so-called revolutionary government: “I believe that any objective student of social forces will agree that these men did their best to create a traditional ‘mass movement’ to accomplish their aims. Such mass movements had been successful in the case of Russian Communism, German National Socialism, and Italian Fascism. All those movements sprang from the soil of postwar misery, the strivings for power, greed for the possessions of others, boredom with the routines of life, yearnings for adventure, or just frustration. These mass movements had many common characteristics. They exaggerated the miseries of the times. They condemned the existing economic and social systems as bankrupt. They cried, ‘Emergency! Emergency!’ They promised Utopia. They envisaged a national devil. They stifled criticism with smearing and misrepresentation through the powerful agencies of government propaganda. They subjugated the legislative and judicial arms and purged their own party oppositions. They spent public moneys in subsidies to pressure groups. They distributed patronage to their adherents. They sought ceaselessly for more power.” [The Memoirs Of Herbert Hoover: The Great Depression, 1929-1941. NY: The Macmillan Company, 1952, p. 355]

(2) Sponsored by the Constantino Foundation, the exhibit “Hidden In Plain Sight: A Celebration of Filipino Heroism, Macario Sakay, Lean Alejandro, and the Constantino Murals” was opened last Saturday, 14 October 2017, at the Bulwagan ng Dangal, University of the Philippines Diliman. Renato Redentor Constantino, Executive Director, Constantino Foundation, said that the two historic murals honoring the murdered heroes (Macario Sakay and Lean Alejandro) had been originally unveiled in the cities of Makati (Ospital ng Makati, Pembo) and San Juan (in the old City Hall) in order to observe the centennial of Philippine hero Macario Sakay’s execution as well as the 20th anniversary of the assassination of the young radical Lean Alejandro. This year, the Constantino Murals were re-collected in Quezon City in order to give the new generations the chance to view them in the context of contemporary events.
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