January 21, 2018, 12:59 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07248 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.15117 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03513 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37432 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02466 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03513 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03947 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.63391 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0315 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00743 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.55654 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01974 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02619 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13539 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06307 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01974 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.25863 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19114 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 395.1056 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03943 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02465 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01899 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.98717 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12629 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 56.09039 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.14821 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01974 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.78074 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.40983 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.49517 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12017 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94356 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.24754 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25256 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34873 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.537 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01614 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03952 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01423 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01424 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08955 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.95481 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 177.50149 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14478 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.06335 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15424 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4645 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11993 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2536 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.98796 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 262.6801 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06734 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2595 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.36688 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 722.49855 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02684 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.44306 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01395 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18305 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02388 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.36803 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.05665 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.11131 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.76199 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.05013 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00592 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01618 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.40616 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.40439 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.70989 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.03631 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.51372 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24018 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06017 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01225 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02645 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1822 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33221 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.99072 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.54431 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.6416 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15887 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.94691 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64535 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3059 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.08092 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.36718 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07768 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24178 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.06532 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6045 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15516 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01397 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02711 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00759 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01974 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06337 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06241 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17782 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06737 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 110.75588 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07183 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07523 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.11021 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.49398 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07401 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15294 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26317 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13811 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15903 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02605 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01423 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43825 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 150.5822 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 11.09138 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 395.67793 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17269 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.16341 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24082 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.62838 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04813 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04392 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07512 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1331 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57902 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.22736 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56937 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.46241 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01974 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56325 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 160.3513 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19686 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 447.97712 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03691 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0496 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.5818 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05329 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.49813 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92441 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.9329 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24034 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 102.41761 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.14229 Zimbabwe dollar

War of the dragons

The idea that China holds the key to solving the ongoing political and military crisis on the Korean Peninsula has been the standard jack-in-the-box of United States North Korea policy for the past seven decades. It is set to pop up whenever U.S.-North Korea tensions escalated and the threat of war thought imminent.

U.S. President Donald Trump and former Chief White House Strategist Stephen Bannon are only the latest to espouse the view that China has the power and influence to induce its “client state” to stop its saber-rattling and nuclear provocations. 

This view, according to an article summing up recent events in Asia in The Diplomat, is not just confined to U.S. policymakers, either. 

In fact, ever since Chinese troops crossed the Yalu River on October 1, 1950 and attacked U.S. and UN forces on North Korean soil, numerous U.S. policymakers have been looking to Beijing as the éminence grise of the Kim dynasty that can sway the latter’s behavior.

Indeed, despite substantial evidence that the incumbent North Korean leader, Kim Jong-un, has a strained relationship with his big neighbor and has been openly antagonizing the communist leadership in Beijing as well as deliberately curtailing Chinese influence in his country, the “client state” narrative continues to hold sway.

In particular, the negative influence and legacy of the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War on North Korean perceptions of China has been neglected. China attacking a close ally in 1979 — one which it had supported since the first Indo-China War in the early 1950s — underlined the perception that Beijing, despite Chinese intervention in the Korean War and the signing of the 1961 Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Friendship Treaty, is ultimately not to be trusted.

Chinese leader Mao Zedong saw Korea as a focal point of larger tensions between the East and West. Because of continuing U.S. support of Chiang Kai-Sheik in Taiwan, Mao saw China in a de-facto war with the United States by 1950. 

Mao in particular saw mountainous North Korea as the battlefield where the People’s Liberation Army could bring its distinct relative advantage – superior numbers – to bear against the Americans and show the world that China was a great power to be reckoned with.

For Mao, Korea was first and foremost a pawn in a much larger great powers game. He cared little about the Kim regime per se. What the Chinese did in Korea entering the war, taking terrible casualties, but stalemating the Americans and the United Nations in the process — they did for their own reasons, not out of any great love for the North Koreans. Their respect for the Koreans and Kim at that moment was in fact quite marginal.

This would change very little throughout the rest of the Korean War and the 1950s. (I covered the conflict as a war news correspondent of the Philippines Herald.)

In the 1960s, relations between the DPRK and China declined further. Among other things, the Korean Workers Party (KWP) called the Cultural Revolution “great madness” and referred to Mao Zedong as “an old fool who has gone out of his mind.” China in turn accused North Korea of revisionist tendencies.

This set a pattern of disagreement for the coming decades, continuing in the post-Cold War period down to the present time.

While the Sino-Vietnamese War neither directly impacted North Korea militarily nor politically, it showed Pyongyang that the inherent asymmetry of Chinese relations with minor allies and China’s ruthlessness in pursuing its national interests.

For over two decades from 1950 to 1975, China had provided Vietnam with more than $20 billion in economic and military aid. It also dispatched political and military advisors to help support the war efforts against the French and then the Americans. 

However, Sino-Vietnamese relations quickly deteriorated in the middle of the 1970s following the end of the Vietnam War. Vietnam joined the Soviet-dominated Council for Mutual Economic Cooperation 

(COMECON) and signed the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1978, as China and the Soviet Union were locked in fierce competition over communist leadership in the Third World. 

China called the treaty “a military alliance and branded Vietnam the ‘Cuba of the East,’ pursuing hegemonistic ‘imperial dreams’ in Southeast Asia.” 

Beijing thought that Hanoi was ungrateful for Chinese aid and sacrifice during the wars in Vietnam. At the same time, China feared Soviet encirclement and it wanted to show Vietnam that its new ally, the Soviet Union, would be unwilling or unable to come to its aid during a military conflict.

On February 17, 1979, China launched its invasion, calling it a “self-defensive counterattack” against “the hooligans of Asia” and “running dogs of the Soviet Union,” as Chinese propaganda referred to the Vietnamese. For 30 days, the PLA fought the bloodiest battles since the Korean War.

By March 16, China had completely withdrawn all of its forces from Vietnamese territory after Beijing claimed it had achieved its war goals, which included the occupation of two Vietnamese cities. 

The Sino-Vietnamese War left a deep impression on China’s immediate neighbors in Asia and its major lesson must have been obvious for North Korea: China would not hesitate to abandon an ally or shrink from the use of force to advance its national interests.

China chose to go to war with a country it had supported economically, militarily, and politically for over two decades. North Korea’s leadership at first saw North Vietnam’s victory over the U.S. and the South as a strategic opportunity. 

To make matters worse, North Korea soon found out that unification does not guarantee Chinese non-interference and the right of an ostensible ally to an independent foreign policy.

***

Quote of the Day: “True to Lord Palmerson’s dictum, there are no eternal allies and no perpetual enemies, but only perpetual interests!’
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