May 26, 2018, 5:49 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06987 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04394 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03405 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46707 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02507 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03386 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03804 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.58684 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03178 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00718 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.30759 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01902 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02521 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13049 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06941 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01902 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2997 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18862 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 380.82557 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.038 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02456 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01888 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.92087 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1215 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.23245 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.69241 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01902 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.79018 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41871 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.37645 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12092 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.9416 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.20987 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25394 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33993 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51779 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01623 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03907 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01422 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01425 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08823 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89024 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 171.23835 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13955 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.93875 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14924 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45305 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11993 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.23264 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.18261 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 268.49914 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06761 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28921 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.52235 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 800.64676 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00476 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.38368 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01348 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08195 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.91839 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2975 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 77.23036 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.96595 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.12003 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.46376 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00575 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0156 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.24805 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.41735 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.6285 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.00552 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.59102 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23569 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05799 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0118 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02586 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18008 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31929 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.99391 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.77516 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.76412 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15373 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.73388 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65627 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29618 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.63553 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37196 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07566 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23683 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.82899 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59717 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15404 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06962 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02745 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00732 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01902 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0621 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06201 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19897 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06975 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 108.10348 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06924 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0751 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.17631 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.13468 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07134 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15092 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25547 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34155 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16566 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02546 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01422 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42241 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.32471 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.69051 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 397.78391 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16644 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.79608 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23678 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60662 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0483 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04363 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08961 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1286 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56886 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.27563 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49705 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.0291 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01902 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5933 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 151.83565 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1494.25528 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 433.30797 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03595 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04914 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.63667 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05136 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.63667 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.926 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.75366 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23681 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 98.716 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.88415 Zimbabwe dollar

Sudden cardiac death

SUDDEN Cardiac Death (SCD) is a swift and unexpected death caused by a heart condition or mechanism, which may or may not be obvious. SCD varies in its range of definition. Usually, though, it applies to a situation where the person, who was thought to be free of heart disease, or only had a “mild” heart disease, suddenly died.

What causes these sudden deaths?

In the age range between 40 and older, the vast majority is due to coronary artery disease (heart “attacks”). In 20% (one out of five) of those who develop symptoms of coronary artery disease, and even among those with advanced coronary artery disease, the first symptom of the disease is sudden death. In those younger than forty years old, including teenagers, sudden death from “no apparent reason” is usually due to fatal ventricular arrythmia (heart irregularity), which could be brought on by electrolyte imbalance and other factors, and in some cases, to totally unknown cause. Brugada Syndrome is one such demise from a fatal heart rhythm abnormality.

Can illegal drugs cause sudden death?

Yes. Other “recreational” drugs could also lead to sudden death, many by causing deadly heart irregularity. Among some individuals, cigarette smoking could cause heart rhythm problems that lead to cardiac arrest. Thank God, this is rare.

What is a “Widow-Maker” heart disease?

As the name implies, this particular condition results in sudden deaths among men, leaving their wives widows. This is usually due to a severe blockage of the left main coronary artery. If the left main coronary artery is blocked, all the left ventricular muscles are deprived of blood causing a massive acute heart attack, followed by sudden death. Even a single coronary blockage, if severe enough, could be dangerous, and deadly, depending on the portion of the heart that suffers.

Could Mitral Valve Prolapse cause sudden death?

Yes, but, fortunately, very rarely. Mitral Valve Prolapse is a condition where this valve on the left side of the heart (between the left upper and left lower chamber) is kind of “limp” and “weak” resulting in a slightly or moderately leaking Mitral Valve. This condition is generally benign and does not require surgery in majority of cases. Medications and some lifestyle changes are the therapies of choice.

What are the usual symptoms prior to SCD?

Interviews with family of the victims usually reveal some angina (chest discomfort or tightness), or heart irregularity, and/or shortness of breath, and worsening of the symptoms over a few days or a few hours before sudden collapse and death in 75% of these people. Some of these symptoms may even be confused with indigestion, fatigue, muscle pains, or depression. Self-denial (of symptoms) makes this condition treacherous. Anyone with any of these symptoms should consult their physicians without delay. In many cases, the first symptoms is cardiac arrest.

Does a normal EKG preclude SCD?

No, a plain resting EKG that is reported as normal does not eliminate the possibility of Sudden Cardiac Death, especially among patients with coronary artery disease, whether previously diagnosed or still undetected. This is why a Stress EKG, preferably with Thallium, or Stress Echocardiography, is recommended to find out how the heart would behave under stress. These are more accurate and significant tests compared to a simple resting EKG. A plain EKG is only helpful if it shows abnormal findings. If it is “normal,” it does not have an accurate diagnostic value, and thus, cannot be depended upon for prognostication.

What is Brugada Syndrome?

Brugada Syndrome is a baffling condition where a young person, who appears to be healthy, unexpectedly develops cardiac arrest, for no apparent reason. Most victims do not survive the episode. This condition is now believed to be responsible for countless sudden deaths among young people - athletes, students, etc., - who suddenly dropped dead.

Did the victims have any prior symptoms?

No, majority of victims did not have any prior symptoms. They were “in good health” when suddenly they collapsed, went into coma, and later died, or died on the spot. Three Doctors Brugada (R, P & J) and their colleagues at the Unitat d’Aritmies, Hospital Clinic, in Barcelona, Spain, were the first to describe the syndrome in November 1992. The characteristic EKG findings in this syndrome was first described in 1980 among six patients who had cardiac arrest and were successfully resuscitated. It was not recognized at that time as a disease entity, but those were classic victims of Brugada Syndrome.

How does one prevent Brugada Syndrome?

Since this disease entity has now been “described,” which makes diagnosis of this entity possible, everyone, especially those with a family history of unexplained sudden cardiac arrest, should be tested, starting with an EKG, and some “provocative” tests (with disopyramide, flecainide, ajmaline, procainamide) done to reproduce the characteristic Brugada EKG findings. 

Can genetic testing help?

Since this disease is secondary to a mutation of SCN5A gene of chromosome 3 that has a dominant autosomic transmission pattern, with genetic defect in the alpha subunit of the sodium channel, genetic testing may be in order. However, 30% to 80% of patients will have negative (normal) gene screening in spite of overt or latent clinical Brugada Syndrome. 

What’s the treatment for Brugada Syndrome?

If one is diagnosed to have Brugada Syndrome, an automatic implantable cardiac-pacemaker defibrillator (AICD) may be implanted, which will pace the heart and increase the rate if the rate goes down (awake or when asleep, 24/7), and shocks and jolts the heart back to normal rhythm, when the heart goes to ventricular fibrillation. Hundreds of thousands of people worldwide have AICD to prevent sudden death from a variety of causes. None of the available drugs today are effective against Brugada Syndrome. When diagnosis is made, which may be missed a lot of time, then cardiac arrest may be prevented with AICD.

Can other sudden cardiac deaths be prevented?

Since most of these SCDs are due to coronary artery disease, primary prevention should be aimed at warding off coronary artery disease before it develops, like avoidance of cigarette smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle; and the management of high blood pressure, diabetes, and elevated cholesterol, if these are present. Secondary prevention is by early diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease, and any medically significant heart irregularity present. Where indicated, coronary angioplasty or bypass may be done. AICD implantation should be considered for those with a history of recurrent cardiac arrests.

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