November 20, 2017, 3:43 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07227 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.22452 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03503 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34355 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02607 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03503 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03935 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.64187 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0327 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00742 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.29713 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01968 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02667 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13499 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0645 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01968 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28247 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20681 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 393.93939 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03931 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02511 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01951 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.40988 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13051 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 59.13813 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.08422 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01968 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.83943 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42677 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.47954 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12411 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94451 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.25075 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2609 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34652 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53227 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01667 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04117 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0149 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01491 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0895 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92483 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 177.2137 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14447 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.05313 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15372 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46232 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12613 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.21291 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.19481 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 266.09603 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06915 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27847 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.9634 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 693.36875 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02755 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.47068 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01392 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21558 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03994 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37194 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.10272 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.33333 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.70956 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.5429 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00594 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01614 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.52952 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.2625 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.73239 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.02145 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.44392 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27873 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05999 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01221 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02676 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18535 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34406 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.02145 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.82015 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.01181 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15831 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.91558 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.66706 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30638 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.09681 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37473 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08186 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27564 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.02479 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60232 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16201 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03758 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02897 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00757 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01968 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06374 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06312 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07261 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07062 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.06651 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07477 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07746 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.16854 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.37721 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07379 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15368 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26269 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13104 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16586 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02669 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01491 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43695 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.94097 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.99961 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 408.72688 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17218 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.13341 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2756 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64542 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04872 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04538 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07647 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13045 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59144 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.97875 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52076 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.36954 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01968 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57989 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 158.20543 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19628 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 446.89099 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.12515 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05043 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.9329 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05313 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.93861 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.9754 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.91834 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27568 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 102.11531 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.12121 Zimbabwe dollar

Statutes of limitation

THE Confederate States of America was the North American nation-state of 11 slave-holding states in 1861 to 1865; the imperialist United States of America of Alfred Thayer Mahan, jingoists and Albert Beveridge was similarly steeped in racism. In fact, the speech of Beveridge (“In Support of an American Empire”) began with: “The Philippines are ours forever, ‘territory belonging to the United States,’ as the Constitution calls them...We will not renounce our part in the mission of our race.”

“Senators must remember that we are not dealing with Americans or Europeans. We are dealing with Orientals. We are dealing with Orientals who are Malays.” [https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ajb72.htm] “They are not capable of self-government. How could they be? They are not of a self-governing race. They are Orientals, Malays.” [Record, 56 Cong., I Sess., pp. 704-712]

Kansas, North Dakota and Oregon, among others, sent troops to the Pearl of the Orient who dismantled the Malolos Republic. As states in the Union and the American Republic in general, the imperialists waged a race war against the Filipino people. [http://apjjf.org/-Paul-A.-Kramer/1745/article.html] Their jingoism resulted in atrocities: “There were racial overtones to the actions of many US troops which may have allowed them to treat Filipinos with less or little regard to their humanity. Race was a consideration addressed in hearings in the US Congress as well...The Army had previously investigated some allegations of water cure use by US service men in the Philippines and, in 1902, concluded that some soldiers had used the water cure.” [http://www.vsb.org/docs/sections/military/water.pdf]

Fred D. Sweet of the Utah Light Battery: “The scene reminded me of the shooting of jack-rabbits in Utah, only the rabbits sometimes got away, but the insurgents did not.” Arthur Minkler of the Kansas Regiment: “It was like hunting rabbits; an insurgent would jump out of a hole or the brush and run; he would not get very far...We do not take prisoners. At least the Twentieth Kansas do not.” E.D. Furnam of the Washington Regiment: “We burned hundreds of houses and looted hundreds more.” Frank M. Erb of the Pennsylvania Regiment: “We have been in this nigger-fighting business now for 23 days.” [http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/58/]

Dixie and Yankee, they visited brutalities upon Rizal’s countrymen. How about the so-called buffalo soldiers? “The 9th and 10th Cavalry were sent to the Philippines as reinforcements, bringing all four Black regiments plus African American national guardsmen into the war against the Insurectos...Bishop Henry M. Turner characterized the venture in the Philippines as ‘an unholy war of conquest’. But many African Americans felt a good military showing by Black troops in the Philippines would reflect favorably and enhance their cause in the United States.” [https://www.nps.gov/prsf/learn/historyculture/the-philippine-insurrectio...

“It is quite time for the Negroes to quit claiming kindred with every black face from Hannibal down. Hannibal was no Negro, nor was Aguinaldo. We are to share in the glories or defeats of our country’s wars, that is patriotism pure and simple.” [“The Philippine War is No Race War,” Indianapolis Freeman, October 7, 1899; as cited in “The Philippine War – A Conflict of Conscience for African Americans,” website of the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior]

Given this background, we request forbearance for not fully understanding the mayhem that attended the campaigns in the American South to remove Confederate monuments. We read, for instance, that the City Of Charlottesville Blue Ribbon Commission on Race, Memorials, and Public Spaces Report to City Council of December 19, 2016 recommended: “moving the (Robert E. Lee) sculpture to McIntire Park and confronting its history there in a new context; or 2) confronting the sculpture in place by redesigning/transforming Lee Park.” [http://www.charlottesville.org/Home/ShowDocument?id=48999]

Confrontation over a statue? Yet 42 years ago, when U.S. President Gerald R. Ford signed Senate Joint Resolution 23, restoring posthumously the full rights of citizenship to General Robert E. Lee, he remarked: “Lee’s dedication to his native State of Virginia chartered his course for the bitter Civil War years, causing him to reluctantly resign from a distinguished career in the United States Army and to serve as General of the Army of Northern Virginia. He, thus, forfeited his rights to U.S. citizenship. Once the war was over, he firmly felt the wounds of the

North and South must be bound up. He sought to show by example that the citizens of the South must dedicate their efforts to rebuilding that region of the country as a strong and vital part of the American Union.”

“General Lee’s character has been an example to succeeding generations, making the restoration of his citizenship an event in which every American can take pride.” [https://fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/speeches/750473.htm]

As for the President of the Confederate States of America, U.S. Public Law 95-466, approved 17 October 1978, restored posthumously the full rights of citizenship to Jefferson Davis. For which, U.S. President Jimmy Carter remarked: “Our Nation needs to clear away the guilts and enmities and recriminations of the past, to finally set at rest the divisions that threatened to destroy our Nation and to discredit the principles on which it was founded. Our people need to turn their attention to the important tasks that still lie before us in establishing those principles for all people.” [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=29993]

Here in the Philippines, President Duterte said on the 34th death anniversary of Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino: “Through his words of wisdom, let us reflect on his life and realize that, indeed, the Filipino is worth dying for.” [http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/08/21/President-Duterte-message-on-N... There is a Ninoy Aquino Monument on Quezon and Timog Avenues in Quezon City occupying the spot where civilians stopped an armored personnel carrier from proceeding to the Channel 4 complex during the 1986 “people power revolution.” [http://www.malaya.com.ph/business-news/news/aquino-thanks-duterte-tribut... Quezon City, according to the City Government website, “pays homage to the heroes who fought for freedom, as well as built monuments and shrines depicting their extraordinary courage so that they shall continue to inspire and embolden others to bring honor and pride to our city and our country.” These symbols include the Bantayog ng mga Bayani, Our Lady of EDSA Shrine, People Power Monument, Cry of Pugad Lawin Shrine, Melchora Aquino Shrine, Boy Scouts Rotonda, and monuments for Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, President Manuel Quezon and General Licerio Geronimo – “the valiant Katipunero who defeated Gen. Henry Lawton in what came to be known as the Battle of Paye during the Philippine-American War.”

Incidentally, we have not forgotten that Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters wickedly desecrated the chapel of Malagakit village in Pigcawayan town in North Cotabato last June.
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