September 20, 2017, 7:13 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07179 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17553 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03474 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33168 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02434 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03495 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03909 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.57584 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03196 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00736 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.8794 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01955 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02626 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13468 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06076 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01955 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.25293 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19814 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 391.32134 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03905 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02381 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01878 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.19703 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12797 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 56.56763 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.20407 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01955 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.80414 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42683 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.47146 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12175 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92005 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.16386 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25592 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3448 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45563 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01636 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0398 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0144 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01438 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08637 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.87373 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 174.19859 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14252 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.99648 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15278 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45582 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12205 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.20133 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.05786 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 258.65911 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06872 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.25233 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.81079 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 654.02658 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07584 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.54613 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01384 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17369 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00743 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.34064 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.2025 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.08053 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.59187 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.0045 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00588 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01603 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.62568 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 161.53245 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.42533 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98769 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.27717 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25762 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05959 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01213 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02655 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18266 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34275 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.00176 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.48554 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.84988 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15735 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.05629 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65031 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30336 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.99922 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34428 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08176 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25704 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.88038 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5933 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15326 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 1.99961 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02667 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00752 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01955 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06351 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06226 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.05629 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06996 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 110.44762 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07117 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07527 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.12619 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.18804 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0733 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15296 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26388 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13018 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15555 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02627 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0144 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43405 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.59891 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.88741 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 400.87765 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17103 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.06607 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25709 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64621 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04766 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04368 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06714 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13149 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58751 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.66693 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51173 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.19156 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01955 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56626 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 157.93589 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19498 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 444.15559 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06353 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04908 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.72635 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05278 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.62119 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.9398 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.88468 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25718 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 101.43667 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.07389 Zimbabwe dollar

Statutes of limitation

THE Confederate States of America was the North American nation-state of 11 slave-holding states in 1861 to 1865; the imperialist United States of America of Alfred Thayer Mahan, jingoists and Albert Beveridge was similarly steeped in racism. In fact, the speech of Beveridge (“In Support of an American Empire”) began with: “The Philippines are ours forever, ‘territory belonging to the United States,’ as the Constitution calls them...We will not renounce our part in the mission of our race.”

“Senators must remember that we are not dealing with Americans or Europeans. We are dealing with Orientals. We are dealing with Orientals who are Malays.” [https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ajb72.htm] “They are not capable of self-government. How could they be? They are not of a self-governing race. They are Orientals, Malays.” [Record, 56 Cong., I Sess., pp. 704-712]

Kansas, North Dakota and Oregon, among others, sent troops to the Pearl of the Orient who dismantled the Malolos Republic. As states in the Union and the American Republic in general, the imperialists waged a race war against the Filipino people. [http://apjjf.org/-Paul-A.-Kramer/1745/article.html] Their jingoism resulted in atrocities: “There were racial overtones to the actions of many US troops which may have allowed them to treat Filipinos with less or little regard to their humanity. Race was a consideration addressed in hearings in the US Congress as well...The Army had previously investigated some allegations of water cure use by US service men in the Philippines and, in 1902, concluded that some soldiers had used the water cure.” [http://www.vsb.org/docs/sections/military/water.pdf]

Fred D. Sweet of the Utah Light Battery: “The scene reminded me of the shooting of jack-rabbits in Utah, only the rabbits sometimes got away, but the insurgents did not.” Arthur Minkler of the Kansas Regiment: “It was like hunting rabbits; an insurgent would jump out of a hole or the brush and run; he would not get very far...We do not take prisoners. At least the Twentieth Kansas do not.” E.D. Furnam of the Washington Regiment: “We burned hundreds of houses and looted hundreds more.” Frank M. Erb of the Pennsylvania Regiment: “We have been in this nigger-fighting business now for 23 days.” [http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/58/]

Dixie and Yankee, they visited brutalities upon Rizal’s countrymen. How about the so-called buffalo soldiers? “The 9th and 10th Cavalry were sent to the Philippines as reinforcements, bringing all four Black regiments plus African American national guardsmen into the war against the Insurectos...Bishop Henry M. Turner characterized the venture in the Philippines as ‘an unholy war of conquest’. But many African Americans felt a good military showing by Black troops in the Philippines would reflect favorably and enhance their cause in the United States.” [https://www.nps.gov/prsf/learn/historyculture/the-philippine-insurrectio...

“It is quite time for the Negroes to quit claiming kindred with every black face from Hannibal down. Hannibal was no Negro, nor was Aguinaldo. We are to share in the glories or defeats of our country’s wars, that is patriotism pure and simple.” [“The Philippine War is No Race War,” Indianapolis Freeman, October 7, 1899; as cited in “The Philippine War – A Conflict of Conscience for African Americans,” website of the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior]

Given this background, we request forbearance for not fully understanding the mayhem that attended the campaigns in the American South to remove Confederate monuments. We read, for instance, that the City Of Charlottesville Blue Ribbon Commission on Race, Memorials, and Public Spaces Report to City Council of December 19, 2016 recommended: “moving the (Robert E. Lee) sculpture to McIntire Park and confronting its history there in a new context; or 2) confronting the sculpture in place by redesigning/transforming Lee Park.” [http://www.charlottesville.org/Home/ShowDocument?id=48999]

Confrontation over a statue? Yet 42 years ago, when U.S. President Gerald R. Ford signed Senate Joint Resolution 23, restoring posthumously the full rights of citizenship to General Robert E. Lee, he remarked: “Lee’s dedication to his native State of Virginia chartered his course for the bitter Civil War years, causing him to reluctantly resign from a distinguished career in the United States Army and to serve as General of the Army of Northern Virginia. He, thus, forfeited his rights to U.S. citizenship. Once the war was over, he firmly felt the wounds of the

North and South must be bound up. He sought to show by example that the citizens of the South must dedicate their efforts to rebuilding that region of the country as a strong and vital part of the American Union.”

“General Lee’s character has been an example to succeeding generations, making the restoration of his citizenship an event in which every American can take pride.” [https://fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/speeches/750473.htm]

As for the President of the Confederate States of America, U.S. Public Law 95-466, approved 17 October 1978, restored posthumously the full rights of citizenship to Jefferson Davis. For which, U.S. President Jimmy Carter remarked: “Our Nation needs to clear away the guilts and enmities and recriminations of the past, to finally set at rest the divisions that threatened to destroy our Nation and to discredit the principles on which it was founded. Our people need to turn their attention to the important tasks that still lie before us in establishing those principles for all people.” [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=29993]

Here in the Philippines, President Duterte said on the 34th death anniversary of Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino: “Through his words of wisdom, let us reflect on his life and realize that, indeed, the Filipino is worth dying for.” [http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/08/21/President-Duterte-message-on-N... There is a Ninoy Aquino Monument on Quezon and Timog Avenues in Quezon City occupying the spot where civilians stopped an armored personnel carrier from proceeding to the Channel 4 complex during the 1986 “people power revolution.” [http://www.malaya.com.ph/business-news/news/aquino-thanks-duterte-tribut... Quezon City, according to the City Government website, “pays homage to the heroes who fought for freedom, as well as built monuments and shrines depicting their extraordinary courage so that they shall continue to inspire and embolden others to bring honor and pride to our city and our country.” These symbols include the Bantayog ng mga Bayani, Our Lady of EDSA Shrine, People Power Monument, Cry of Pugad Lawin Shrine, Melchora Aquino Shrine, Boy Scouts Rotonda, and monuments for Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, President Manuel Quezon and General Licerio Geronimo – “the valiant Katipunero who defeated Gen. Henry Lawton in what came to be known as the Battle of Paye during the Philippine-American War.”

Incidentally, we have not forgotten that Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters wickedly desecrated the chapel of Malagakit village in Pigcawayan town in North Cotabato last June.
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