May 26, 2018, 8:22 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06987 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04394 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03405 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46707 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02507 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03386 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03804 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.58684 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03178 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00718 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.30759 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01902 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02521 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13049 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06941 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01902 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2997 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18862 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 380.82557 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.038 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02456 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01888 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.92087 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1215 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.23245 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.69241 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01902 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.79018 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41871 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.37645 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12092 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.9416 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.20987 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25394 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33993 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51779 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01623 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03907 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01422 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01425 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08823 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89024 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 171.23835 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13955 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.93875 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14924 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45305 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11993 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.23264 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.18261 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 268.49914 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06761 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28921 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.52235 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 800.64676 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00476 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.38368 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01348 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08195 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.91839 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2975 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 77.23036 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.96595 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.12003 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.46376 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00575 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0156 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.24805 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.41735 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.6285 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.00552 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.59102 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23569 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05799 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0118 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02586 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18008 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31929 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.99391 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.77516 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.76412 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15373 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.73388 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65627 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29618 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.63553 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37196 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07566 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23683 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.82899 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59717 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15404 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06962 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02745 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00732 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01902 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0621 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06201 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19897 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06975 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 108.10348 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06924 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0751 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.17631 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.13468 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07134 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15092 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25547 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34155 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16566 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02546 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01422 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42241 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.32471 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.69051 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 397.78391 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16644 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.79608 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23678 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60662 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0483 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04363 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08961 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1286 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56886 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.27563 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49705 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.0291 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01902 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5933 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 151.83565 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1494.25528 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 433.30797 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03595 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04914 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.63667 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05136 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.63667 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.926 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.75366 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23681 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 98.716 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.88415 Zimbabwe dollar

Statutes of limitation

THE Confederate States of America was the North American nation-state of 11 slave-holding states in 1861 to 1865; the imperialist United States of America of Alfred Thayer Mahan, jingoists and Albert Beveridge was similarly steeped in racism. In fact, the speech of Beveridge (“In Support of an American Empire”) began with: “The Philippines are ours forever, ‘territory belonging to the United States,’ as the Constitution calls them...We will not renounce our part in the mission of our race.”

“Senators must remember that we are not dealing with Americans or Europeans. We are dealing with Orientals. We are dealing with Orientals who are Malays.” [https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ajb72.htm] “They are not capable of self-government. How could they be? They are not of a self-governing race. They are Orientals, Malays.” [Record, 56 Cong., I Sess., pp. 704-712]

Kansas, North Dakota and Oregon, among others, sent troops to the Pearl of the Orient who dismantled the Malolos Republic. As states in the Union and the American Republic in general, the imperialists waged a race war against the Filipino people. [http://apjjf.org/-Paul-A.-Kramer/1745/article.html] Their jingoism resulted in atrocities: “There were racial overtones to the actions of many US troops which may have allowed them to treat Filipinos with less or little regard to their humanity. Race was a consideration addressed in hearings in the US Congress as well...The Army had previously investigated some allegations of water cure use by US service men in the Philippines and, in 1902, concluded that some soldiers had used the water cure.” [http://www.vsb.org/docs/sections/military/water.pdf]

Fred D. Sweet of the Utah Light Battery: “The scene reminded me of the shooting of jack-rabbits in Utah, only the rabbits sometimes got away, but the insurgents did not.” Arthur Minkler of the Kansas Regiment: “It was like hunting rabbits; an insurgent would jump out of a hole or the brush and run; he would not get very far...We do not take prisoners. At least the Twentieth Kansas do not.” E.D. Furnam of the Washington Regiment: “We burned hundreds of houses and looted hundreds more.” Frank M. Erb of the Pennsylvania Regiment: “We have been in this nigger-fighting business now for 23 days.” [http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/58/]

Dixie and Yankee, they visited brutalities upon Rizal’s countrymen. How about the so-called buffalo soldiers? “The 9th and 10th Cavalry were sent to the Philippines as reinforcements, bringing all four Black regiments plus African American national guardsmen into the war against the Insurectos...Bishop Henry M. Turner characterized the venture in the Philippines as ‘an unholy war of conquest’. But many African Americans felt a good military showing by Black troops in the Philippines would reflect favorably and enhance their cause in the United States.” [https://www.nps.gov/prsf/learn/historyculture/the-philippine-insurrectio...

“It is quite time for the Negroes to quit claiming kindred with every black face from Hannibal down. Hannibal was no Negro, nor was Aguinaldo. We are to share in the glories or defeats of our country’s wars, that is patriotism pure and simple.” [“The Philippine War is No Race War,” Indianapolis Freeman, October 7, 1899; as cited in “The Philippine War – A Conflict of Conscience for African Americans,” website of the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior]

Given this background, we request forbearance for not fully understanding the mayhem that attended the campaigns in the American South to remove Confederate monuments. We read, for instance, that the City Of Charlottesville Blue Ribbon Commission on Race, Memorials, and Public Spaces Report to City Council of December 19, 2016 recommended: “moving the (Robert E. Lee) sculpture to McIntire Park and confronting its history there in a new context; or 2) confronting the sculpture in place by redesigning/transforming Lee Park.” [http://www.charlottesville.org/Home/ShowDocument?id=48999]

Confrontation over a statue? Yet 42 years ago, when U.S. President Gerald R. Ford signed Senate Joint Resolution 23, restoring posthumously the full rights of citizenship to General Robert E. Lee, he remarked: “Lee’s dedication to his native State of Virginia chartered his course for the bitter Civil War years, causing him to reluctantly resign from a distinguished career in the United States Army and to serve as General of the Army of Northern Virginia. He, thus, forfeited his rights to U.S. citizenship. Once the war was over, he firmly felt the wounds of the

North and South must be bound up. He sought to show by example that the citizens of the South must dedicate their efforts to rebuilding that region of the country as a strong and vital part of the American Union.”

“General Lee’s character has been an example to succeeding generations, making the restoration of his citizenship an event in which every American can take pride.” [https://fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/speeches/750473.htm]

As for the President of the Confederate States of America, U.S. Public Law 95-466, approved 17 October 1978, restored posthumously the full rights of citizenship to Jefferson Davis. For which, U.S. President Jimmy Carter remarked: “Our Nation needs to clear away the guilts and enmities and recriminations of the past, to finally set at rest the divisions that threatened to destroy our Nation and to discredit the principles on which it was founded. Our people need to turn their attention to the important tasks that still lie before us in establishing those principles for all people.” [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=29993]

Here in the Philippines, President Duterte said on the 34th death anniversary of Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino: “Through his words of wisdom, let us reflect on his life and realize that, indeed, the Filipino is worth dying for.” [http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/08/21/President-Duterte-message-on-N... There is a Ninoy Aquino Monument on Quezon and Timog Avenues in Quezon City occupying the spot where civilians stopped an armored personnel carrier from proceeding to the Channel 4 complex during the 1986 “people power revolution.” [http://www.malaya.com.ph/business-news/news/aquino-thanks-duterte-tribut... Quezon City, according to the City Government website, “pays homage to the heroes who fought for freedom, as well as built monuments and shrines depicting their extraordinary courage so that they shall continue to inspire and embolden others to bring honor and pride to our city and our country.” These symbols include the Bantayog ng mga Bayani, Our Lady of EDSA Shrine, People Power Monument, Cry of Pugad Lawin Shrine, Melchora Aquino Shrine, Boy Scouts Rotonda, and monuments for Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, President Manuel Quezon and General Licerio Geronimo – “the valiant Katipunero who defeated Gen. Henry Lawton in what came to be known as the Battle of Paye during the Philippine-American War.”

Incidentally, we have not forgotten that Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters wickedly desecrated the chapel of Malagakit village in Pigcawayan town in North Cotabato last June.
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