December 17, 2017, 10:11 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07288 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.24593 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03533 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34712 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02593 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03533 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0397 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.63815 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03288 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00748 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.75546 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01985 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02675 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13617 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06539 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01985 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2763 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20411 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 397.3799 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03965 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02552 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01965 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.62406 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13118 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 59.40849 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.184 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01985 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.86245 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43364 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.50992 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12575 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94204 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.28011 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26427 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35252 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5391 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01689 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04119 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01488 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0149 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08949 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93628 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 177.61016 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14561 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.01171 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15502 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46602 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12717 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24851 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.30468 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 269.45216 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0697 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27173 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.50139 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 706.60975 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.09111 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.47122 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01404 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.23456 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04347 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.38392 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.89281 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.1582 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.86423 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.58495 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00599 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01628 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.65919 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 164.78761 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.88289 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.0389 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.48432 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26141 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06051 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01232 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02704 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1878 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33869 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.03414 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.03454 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.15403 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15967 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.9869 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.67209 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30905 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.16276 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37963 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08094 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2608 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.10599 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60838 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16635 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03573 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02839 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00762 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01985 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06535 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06434 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17745 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07099 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.57205 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07225 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07797 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.1679 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.58892 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07443 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15358 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26852 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13219 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16899 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02675 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01489 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44077 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 151.44898 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 11.09567 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 413.80507 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17368 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.22191 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26054 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6449 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04961 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04557 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07666 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13159 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5944 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.30329 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54875 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.55617 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01985 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57046 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 160.57959 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.198 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 450.55577 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.09845 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05144 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 11.07165 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05359 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 11.49782 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00337 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.96129 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26079 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 103.00714 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.18341 Zimbabwe dollar

Remembering September 23

IF there is anything worse than forgetting history, it’s misremembering it. Historical revisionism is rife nowadays, and is fueled mainly by families and groups that will benefit from our collective amnesia. The best and most despicable example is the historical revisionism surrounding martial law and the role of Ferdinand Marcos and his ilk in this dark era of Philippine history.

For starters, martial law was not declared on September 21, 1972. While Proclamation 1081 was dated on September 21, the Sunday Express (the Sunday edition of the Philippine Daily Express, one of the only three publications during that time, because it was pro-Marcos) ran the story on September 24.

Marcos intentionally created the cult of September 21, even going to the extent of proclaiming it as the National Thanksgiving Day to mark the inception of his New Society. As presidential historian Manolo Quezon points out, Marcos’ propaganda effort was so vigorous and successful that many of us still consider September 21 as the actual day of the declaration of martial law. It is also worthy to remember that the staged ambush of Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile, the primordial excuse for the declaration of martial law, happened on September 22.

The infamous appearance of Marcos on television happened only on the evening of September 23, which checks out against an account given by JPE to Raymond Bonner (author of Waltzing with the Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy) where JPE claimed that he and Acting Executive Secretary Roberto Reyes were witnesses to the signing of Proclamation 1081 in the morning of September 23. Why the deception, you might ask? Marcos was obsessed with numerology. 21, a date divisible by 7, was seen to be auspicious compared to 23.

Since then, many lies have been perpetuated to rehabilitate the murderous regime that is martial law, ranging from its motives to the actual effects on the lives of Filipinos then, and now. According to journalist Alan Robles, one of the biggest deceptions perpetuated by the Marcos propaganda machine is that martial law was declared for the good of the Filipino people. There was a lot of noise (instigated by Marcos himself and his propagandists) about the so-called threat of communism to the community, and was in fact one of the charges frequently used to arrest his critics.

In truth, ML was imposed to solidify the hold of the Marcoses on absolute political power. His actions subsequent to the declaration have all been for the pursuit of gaining power, and holding on to it: the drafting of the new constitution and the railroading of the sham plebiscite, filling the seats of the constitutional convention with loyal allies to ensure the results he wanted; abolishing Congress and the courts; shutting down mass media; the list goes on and on. All these actions benefitted no other than Marcos and his cronies.

Another prevalent lie was that martial law was good for the economy. Marcos apologists frequently cite good economic numbers and the construction of the LRT, the CCP and other buildings are proof of economic wellness. Again, all blatant lies and misdirection. The poverty rate was at 24% in 1974, and had risen to 40% in 1980, a year before Marcos lifted (on paper) martial law. As Robles wrote in 2000: “Imelda Marcos was using the Philippine National Bank as her private piggy bank. One of her ideas of dealing with the poor was to put up whitewashed
walls around the squatter areas in Manila.”

It is true that infrastructure was built during martial law, but citizens should not thank the Marcoses for that; it’s government’s job to build for public use. After all, those projects were financed heavily by foreign loans, loans which continue to be paid by taxpayers’ money to this day.

When Marcos was kicked out by the Filipino people in the peaceful uprising known as the EDSA revolution in 1986, government debt stood at a staggering P395.51 billion, equivalent to 58.63% of the nation’s gross domestic product in the same year. Converted to 2014 figures, that translates to P3.363 trillion, more than the national government’s budget for that same year. In fact, the loan taken out for the construction of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant, which stood as single biggest debt obligation for two decades, amounted to $2.3 billion dollars. The Filipino taxpayer only finished paying off that particular debt in 2007, twenty years after martial law ended.

So you see, dear millennials and fillennials, not everything is as rosy as some quarters bamboozle us into believing. Every time we fall for a lie that says martial law was good for the country, Marcos wins. Every time we question whether the regime was truly corrupt, Marcos wins.

Every time we keep silent about President Duterte’s plan to give the Marcoses immunity, Marcos wins. Every time you remember martial law on September 21 because the rest of the world doesn’t bother correcting themselves, Marcos wins.
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