November 23, 2017, 6:22 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07222 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.23697 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.035 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34334 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02609 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.035 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03933 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.63992 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03265 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00741 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.27689 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02668 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13491 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06405 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28171 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20626 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 393.707 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03929 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0252 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01953 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.51721 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13055 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 59.27237 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.06096 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.84798 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42782 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.47748 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12472 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93215 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.25679 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26216 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34612 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53196 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01676 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0411 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01485 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01485 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.09043 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92566 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 176.89283 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14439 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.01731 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15359 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46264 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12608 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.21691 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.23442 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 266.33236 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06904 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28012 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.94985 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 692.86138 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03638 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.46903 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01391 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.2151 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03441 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37082 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 78.99705 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.32547 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.69912 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.59685 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00593 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01613 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.50443 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.16618 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.60669 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.02262 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.44897 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2763 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05995 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0122 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02689 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18578 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34307 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.02635 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.80433 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.94494 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15822 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.90266 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6647 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30619 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.0885 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37348 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08155 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27622 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.00098 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60177 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16317 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03638 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02891 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00756 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06359 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06374 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06568 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07087 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 110.87513 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07473 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07785 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.16841 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.36755 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07374 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15449 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26735 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13097 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16686 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0267 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01486 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4367 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.85251 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.99312 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 410.64307 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17207 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.12743 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27624 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64562 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04905 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04547 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07723 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13037 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59133 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.93314 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51976 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.28811 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57699 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 158.89873 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19617 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 446.39136 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.10089 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05108 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.98368 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0531 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.988 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.98682 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.91504 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2763 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 102.05507 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.11701 Zimbabwe dollar

Radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

TOGETHER with some colleagues, my wife, Farida, and I just returned to Las Vegas from an 11-day Japan Explorer Cruise on the Celebrity Millennium, claimed to be the largest cruise vessel in Asia, at 91,000 tons, 965 ft. long, 105 beam, and occupancy of 2,138. There were more than 300 Filipinos working admirably onboard. We felt at home, and proud of our kababayan.

Besides going to Tokyo, Chiba, Yokohama, other ports of interest in Japan, we toured Nagsaki, a city of 263,000 (among them 9,000 Japanese soldiers and 400 Allied POWs), when it was devastated by an atomic bomb dropped by American squadron commander and pilot of Bockscar, Major General Charles W. Sweeney, at 2:45 AM on August 9, 1945, killing about 80,000. Three days earlier, at 8:15 AM, on August 6th, an American B-29 bomber “Enola Gay” piloted by BG Paul W. Tibbets deployed the world’s first atomic bomb over Hiroshima, then Japan’s 7th largest city, with a population of about 420,000, which plummeted to 137,197 following the nuclear disaster. 

The second bombing (Nagsaki) was the final warning which led to the unconditional surrender of Japan on August 14, 1945, named V-J (Victory over Japan), which ended World War II and saved millions more lives on both sides.

As of 2015, the population of Hiroshima was 1.594 million and Nagsaki, 429,508. Both are thriving metropolis today, vibrant, booming with millions of tourists visiting from around the world.

Level of radiation mystery
The radioactive particles from the atomic bombs 72 years ago were supposed to render both cities uninhabitable for thousands, and millions, of years. 

“Today, the background radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the same as the average amount of natural radiation present anywhere on Earth. It is not enough to affect human health,” according to scientific reports.

But why? What happened? Why are these two cities in Japan safe again, so soon?

Uranium-235 was used for the bomb over Hirsohima and Plutonium-239 over Nagsaki. The half-life of U-235 is 700 million years, the Pu-239, 24,000 years, if they had reach and exploded on the ground.

Information from the Hiroshima and Nagsaki Peace Museums provided the answer to the mystery.

Both bombs exploded high up in the air, 1,968 feet for Hiroshima and 1,800 feet for Nagsaki. They never hit the ground. The 139 pounds of U-235 and the 12 pounds of Pu-239 were pulverized into particles and the plume dissipated by the wind over land and mostly to the sea. Data show there was only a slight increase of leukemia in Nagasaki region but there were no added incidence of cancers in and around Hiroshima. An amazing feat of luck. 

I could not find information as to whether these two atomic bombs (Code-named “Little Boy” for Hiroshima and “Fat Man” for Nagasaki) were specifically designed to explode high up in the air to minimize ground contamination.

Those atom bombs are grenades compared to the present day nuclear bombs, which are more sophisticated, more powerful, and greater in their ability to obliterate even an entire nation. 

Indeed, 38-year old Kim Jong Un should grow up and realize that he could get burned (and North Korea could disappear from this earth) when he continues to play with fire with bravado and recklessness.

Viral outbreaks on cruise ships
Thank God, our Japan Explorer cruise was a healthy and totally enjoyable experience. Sometimes, cruises could be marred by an outbreak of illnesses.

On May 9, 2016 CNN reported “More than 200 passengers on a British cruise ship have fallen ill with the gastrointestinal condition norovirus. The US Center for Disease Control said 252 of 919 passengers -- 27% -- have gotten sick on the Balmoral, a ship operated by Fred Olsen Cruises and most recently docked in Maine. Eight of 520 crew members have come down with norovirus.” New reports on May 4, 2017 said cruise ships norovirus outbreaks at 15 year low in 2017, the lowest since 1994.

Nearly 25 million are expected to take a cruise this year. There were outbreaks in 19 cruise ships in 2004, only two as of May this year, like in 2001.

The cruise industry is mandated by law to report to the CDC any outbreak that exceeds 2 percent of the total number of passengers/crews on onboard. In the case of the Celebrity Millennium we just cruised on, that would mean an outbreak involving at least 43 persons. US-bound ships from foreign ports are required to report the total number of gastrointestinal disease cases, including zero, evaluated by the medical staff 24 hours prior to arrival at US ports.

Norovirus is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis, popularly called the stomach bug or stomach flu, which causes about 20 million illnesses a year in the United States, most often in crowded environments like dormitories, restaurants, hotels, cruise ships, nursing homes, and day care centers. Common cold is higher in incidence than norovirus, but it is more infamous because of the mandatory strict reporting legal requirement.

When exposed to norovirus, it takes about one to three days for symptoms to appear, and it usually lasts for 24 to 48 hours. Victims may be contagious for about 2 weeks after recovery.

Hygiene is the key
Since the introduction on all cruises of hand sanitizer (70 percent ethyl alcohol which kills 99.9 percent of germs within 15 seconds), the outbreaks of norovirus and other contagious illnesses on cruises have dramatically gone down. As always, the onus is on all the crew members and guests on board. One single infected person’s virus is enough spread and contaminates the entire ship and cause an epidemic on a cruise or a hospital, household, dormitory, nursing home, restaurant, day care center, etc.

The good old-fashioned handwashing, with or without soap, works wonders anywhere we are, even at home.

Norovirus and common cold viruses could contaminate food, tables, chairs, plates, cups, glasses, utensils, hand rails, door knobs, elevator buttons, dialpads, counters, tables, etc. Those surfaces are “naturally” teeming with microorganisms. This is the reason frequent handwashing and not touching the face (and those surfaces) are essential habits that significantly lower the risk of acquiring these infections. 

While the viruses we commonly encounter cause illnesses and misery, using hand sanitizers after touching handrails and doorknobs, etc., in public areas, and washing hands frequently will greatly protect us. Always be aware that germs, invisible to the naked eyes, are on our skin, especially in our hands, and are swarming, ever-present, all around us. All we have to do is to wash them away, often. 

***

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