June 25, 2018, 4:00 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06901 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02912 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03401 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5072 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02524 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03345 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03758 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.57159 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03155 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00712 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 32.90079 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02526 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1289 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07111 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28053 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19402 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 376.17437 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03754 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02493 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01856 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.99061 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12218 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.75385 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.57591 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.77772 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41526 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.33615 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12016 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92728 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1963 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25225 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33484 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51146 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01612 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03918 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01416 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01417 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08979 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.87956 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 169.07178 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14072 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.87599 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14741 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44878 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11882 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24803 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.23224 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 264.43067 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06764 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27568 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.24728 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 798.38407 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03119 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.45509 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01333 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06417 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.89121 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28183 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 76.00526 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.92522 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 16.91094 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.86622 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00568 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01541 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.38595 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.00451 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.292 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98572 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.74709 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25254 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05728 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01166 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02548 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1786 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3177 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.98891 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.98647 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.97896 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15183 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.67042 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65295 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29256 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.4053 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37584 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07518 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25239 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.72679 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59207 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15205 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03401 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02719 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00723 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06134 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0609 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.28222 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06966 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.55769 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06839 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07509 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.18236 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 15.96073 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07046 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1479 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25235 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33738 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16635 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02551 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01417 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41725 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.94363 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.72905 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 394.98309 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16441 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.67644 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25202 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.61856 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04882 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04333 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08786 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12682 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56924 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 42.63435 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49267 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 72.51597 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59451 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 147.50094 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1499.4363 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 430.10147 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07159 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0488 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.56614 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05073 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.56614 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92165 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.69466 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25241 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 97.51033 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.80008 Zimbabwe dollar

Radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

TOGETHER with some colleagues, my wife, Farida, and I just returned to Las Vegas from an 11-day Japan Explorer Cruise on the Celebrity Millennium, claimed to be the largest cruise vessel in Asia, at 91,000 tons, 965 ft. long, 105 beam, and occupancy of 2,138. There were more than 300 Filipinos working admirably onboard. We felt at home, and proud of our kababayan.

Besides going to Tokyo, Chiba, Yokohama, other ports of interest in Japan, we toured Nagsaki, a city of 263,000 (among them 9,000 Japanese soldiers and 400 Allied POWs), when it was devastated by an atomic bomb dropped by American squadron commander and pilot of Bockscar, Major General Charles W. Sweeney, at 2:45 AM on August 9, 1945, killing about 80,000. Three days earlier, at 8:15 AM, on August 6th, an American B-29 bomber “Enola Gay” piloted by BG Paul W. Tibbets deployed the world’s first atomic bomb over Hiroshima, then Japan’s 7th largest city, with a population of about 420,000, which plummeted to 137,197 following the nuclear disaster. 

The second bombing (Nagsaki) was the final warning which led to the unconditional surrender of Japan on August 14, 1945, named V-J (Victory over Japan), which ended World War II and saved millions more lives on both sides.

As of 2015, the population of Hiroshima was 1.594 million and Nagsaki, 429,508. Both are thriving metropolis today, vibrant, booming with millions of tourists visiting from around the world.

Level of radiation mystery
The radioactive particles from the atomic bombs 72 years ago were supposed to render both cities uninhabitable for thousands, and millions, of years. 

“Today, the background radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the same as the average amount of natural radiation present anywhere on Earth. It is not enough to affect human health,” according to scientific reports.

But why? What happened? Why are these two cities in Japan safe again, so soon?

Uranium-235 was used for the bomb over Hirsohima and Plutonium-239 over Nagsaki. The half-life of U-235 is 700 million years, the Pu-239, 24,000 years, if they had reach and exploded on the ground.

Information from the Hiroshima and Nagsaki Peace Museums provided the answer to the mystery.

Both bombs exploded high up in the air, 1,968 feet for Hiroshima and 1,800 feet for Nagsaki. They never hit the ground. The 139 pounds of U-235 and the 12 pounds of Pu-239 were pulverized into particles and the plume dissipated by the wind over land and mostly to the sea. Data show there was only a slight increase of leukemia in Nagasaki region but there were no added incidence of cancers in and around Hiroshima. An amazing feat of luck. 

I could not find information as to whether these two atomic bombs (Code-named “Little Boy” for Hiroshima and “Fat Man” for Nagasaki) were specifically designed to explode high up in the air to minimize ground contamination.

Those atom bombs are grenades compared to the present day nuclear bombs, which are more sophisticated, more powerful, and greater in their ability to obliterate even an entire nation. 

Indeed, 38-year old Kim Jong Un should grow up and realize that he could get burned (and North Korea could disappear from this earth) when he continues to play with fire with bravado and recklessness.

Viral outbreaks on cruise ships
Thank God, our Japan Explorer cruise was a healthy and totally enjoyable experience. Sometimes, cruises could be marred by an outbreak of illnesses.

On May 9, 2016 CNN reported “More than 200 passengers on a British cruise ship have fallen ill with the gastrointestinal condition norovirus. The US Center for Disease Control said 252 of 919 passengers -- 27% -- have gotten sick on the Balmoral, a ship operated by Fred Olsen Cruises and most recently docked in Maine. Eight of 520 crew members have come down with norovirus.” New reports on May 4, 2017 said cruise ships norovirus outbreaks at 15 year low in 2017, the lowest since 1994.

Nearly 25 million are expected to take a cruise this year. There were outbreaks in 19 cruise ships in 2004, only two as of May this year, like in 2001.

The cruise industry is mandated by law to report to the CDC any outbreak that exceeds 2 percent of the total number of passengers/crews on onboard. In the case of the Celebrity Millennium we just cruised on, that would mean an outbreak involving at least 43 persons. US-bound ships from foreign ports are required to report the total number of gastrointestinal disease cases, including zero, evaluated by the medical staff 24 hours prior to arrival at US ports.

Norovirus is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis, popularly called the stomach bug or stomach flu, which causes about 20 million illnesses a year in the United States, most often in crowded environments like dormitories, restaurants, hotels, cruise ships, nursing homes, and day care centers. Common cold is higher in incidence than norovirus, but it is more infamous because of the mandatory strict reporting legal requirement.

When exposed to norovirus, it takes about one to three days for symptoms to appear, and it usually lasts for 24 to 48 hours. Victims may be contagious for about 2 weeks after recovery.

Hygiene is the key
Since the introduction on all cruises of hand sanitizer (70 percent ethyl alcohol which kills 99.9 percent of germs within 15 seconds), the outbreaks of norovirus and other contagious illnesses on cruises have dramatically gone down. As always, the onus is on all the crew members and guests on board. One single infected person’s virus is enough spread and contaminates the entire ship and cause an epidemic on a cruise or a hospital, household, dormitory, nursing home, restaurant, day care center, etc.

The good old-fashioned handwashing, with or without soap, works wonders anywhere we are, even at home.

Norovirus and common cold viruses could contaminate food, tables, chairs, plates, cups, glasses, utensils, hand rails, door knobs, elevator buttons, dialpads, counters, tables, etc. Those surfaces are “naturally” teeming with microorganisms. This is the reason frequent handwashing and not touching the face (and those surfaces) are essential habits that significantly lower the risk of acquiring these infections. 

While the viruses we commonly encounter cause illnesses and misery, using hand sanitizers after touching handrails and doorknobs, etc., in public areas, and washing hands frequently will greatly protect us. Always be aware that germs, invisible to the naked eyes, are on our skin, especially in our hands, and are swarming, ever-present, all around us. All we have to do is to wash them away, often. 

***

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