February 18, 2018, 3:12 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07035 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03736 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0341 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37852 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02417 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0341 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03831 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.58755 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03006 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00722 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.54368 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01916 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02532 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13142 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06189 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01916 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.22893 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18046 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 383.5249 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03827 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02404 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01774 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.3659 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12153 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.27203 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.83966 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01916 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.70268 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.39128 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.38755 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.115 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93544 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.16856 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24138 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33716 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52165 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01543 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03813 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01366 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01366 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08656 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89866 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 172.37548 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14054 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.9364 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14982 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45019 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11447 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.21437 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.80326 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 259.67432 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06787 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.23063 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.68199 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 709.84673 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.91667 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.39444 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01355 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03307 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.93774 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.30544 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 76.53257 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.57567 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.24138 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.41552 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00573 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01571 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.12088 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.62069 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.83908 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.97165 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.44272 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22308 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0584 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01189 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02534 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17539 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31734 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.9454 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.42146 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.82375 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15425 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.68582 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.61303 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29828 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.66743 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35467 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07454 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22274 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.87739 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59195 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14901 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 1.96697 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02593 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00737 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01916 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06225 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06025 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.11398 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0642 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.68774 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06973 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07198 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.08044 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.10153 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07184 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14875 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25546 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34393 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15255 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02511 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01367 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4254 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.16858 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.76628 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 378.35439 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16762 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.86552 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22276 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59923 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04546 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04238 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07167 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12904 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.55669 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.02682 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51715 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 69.38697 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01916 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54521 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 156.47509 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 477.73945 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 434.75095 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01916 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04802 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.11303 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05172 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.11303 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.81628 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.78831 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22279 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 99.41571 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.93295 Zimbabwe dollar

Radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

TOGETHER with some colleagues, my wife, Farida, and I just returned to Las Vegas from an 11-day Japan Explorer Cruise on the Celebrity Millennium, claimed to be the largest cruise vessel in Asia, at 91,000 tons, 965 ft. long, 105 beam, and occupancy of 2,138. There were more than 300 Filipinos working admirably onboard. We felt at home, and proud of our kababayan.

Besides going to Tokyo, Chiba, Yokohama, other ports of interest in Japan, we toured Nagsaki, a city of 263,000 (among them 9,000 Japanese soldiers and 400 Allied POWs), when it was devastated by an atomic bomb dropped by American squadron commander and pilot of Bockscar, Major General Charles W. Sweeney, at 2:45 AM on August 9, 1945, killing about 80,000. Three days earlier, at 8:15 AM, on August 6th, an American B-29 bomber “Enola Gay” piloted by BG Paul W. Tibbets deployed the world’s first atomic bomb over Hiroshima, then Japan’s 7th largest city, with a population of about 420,000, which plummeted to 137,197 following the nuclear disaster. 

The second bombing (Nagsaki) was the final warning which led to the unconditional surrender of Japan on August 14, 1945, named V-J (Victory over Japan), which ended World War II and saved millions more lives on both sides.

As of 2015, the population of Hiroshima was 1.594 million and Nagsaki, 429,508. Both are thriving metropolis today, vibrant, booming with millions of tourists visiting from around the world.

Level of radiation mystery
The radioactive particles from the atomic bombs 72 years ago were supposed to render both cities uninhabitable for thousands, and millions, of years. 

“Today, the background radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the same as the average amount of natural radiation present anywhere on Earth. It is not enough to affect human health,” according to scientific reports.

But why? What happened? Why are these two cities in Japan safe again, so soon?

Uranium-235 was used for the bomb over Hirsohima and Plutonium-239 over Nagsaki. The half-life of U-235 is 700 million years, the Pu-239, 24,000 years, if they had reach and exploded on the ground.

Information from the Hiroshima and Nagsaki Peace Museums provided the answer to the mystery.

Both bombs exploded high up in the air, 1,968 feet for Hiroshima and 1,800 feet for Nagsaki. They never hit the ground. The 139 pounds of U-235 and the 12 pounds of Pu-239 were pulverized into particles and the plume dissipated by the wind over land and mostly to the sea. Data show there was only a slight increase of leukemia in Nagasaki region but there were no added incidence of cancers in and around Hiroshima. An amazing feat of luck. 

I could not find information as to whether these two atomic bombs (Code-named “Little Boy” for Hiroshima and “Fat Man” for Nagasaki) were specifically designed to explode high up in the air to minimize ground contamination.

Those atom bombs are grenades compared to the present day nuclear bombs, which are more sophisticated, more powerful, and greater in their ability to obliterate even an entire nation. 

Indeed, 38-year old Kim Jong Un should grow up and realize that he could get burned (and North Korea could disappear from this earth) when he continues to play with fire with bravado and recklessness.

Viral outbreaks on cruise ships
Thank God, our Japan Explorer cruise was a healthy and totally enjoyable experience. Sometimes, cruises could be marred by an outbreak of illnesses.

On May 9, 2016 CNN reported “More than 200 passengers on a British cruise ship have fallen ill with the gastrointestinal condition norovirus. The US Center for Disease Control said 252 of 919 passengers -- 27% -- have gotten sick on the Balmoral, a ship operated by Fred Olsen Cruises and most recently docked in Maine. Eight of 520 crew members have come down with norovirus.” New reports on May 4, 2017 said cruise ships norovirus outbreaks at 15 year low in 2017, the lowest since 1994.

Nearly 25 million are expected to take a cruise this year. There were outbreaks in 19 cruise ships in 2004, only two as of May this year, like in 2001.

The cruise industry is mandated by law to report to the CDC any outbreak that exceeds 2 percent of the total number of passengers/crews on onboard. In the case of the Celebrity Millennium we just cruised on, that would mean an outbreak involving at least 43 persons. US-bound ships from foreign ports are required to report the total number of gastrointestinal disease cases, including zero, evaluated by the medical staff 24 hours prior to arrival at US ports.

Norovirus is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis, popularly called the stomach bug or stomach flu, which causes about 20 million illnesses a year in the United States, most often in crowded environments like dormitories, restaurants, hotels, cruise ships, nursing homes, and day care centers. Common cold is higher in incidence than norovirus, but it is more infamous because of the mandatory strict reporting legal requirement.

When exposed to norovirus, it takes about one to three days for symptoms to appear, and it usually lasts for 24 to 48 hours. Victims may be contagious for about 2 weeks after recovery.

Hygiene is the key
Since the introduction on all cruises of hand sanitizer (70 percent ethyl alcohol which kills 99.9 percent of germs within 15 seconds), the outbreaks of norovirus and other contagious illnesses on cruises have dramatically gone down. As always, the onus is on all the crew members and guests on board. One single infected person’s virus is enough spread and contaminates the entire ship and cause an epidemic on a cruise or a hospital, household, dormitory, nursing home, restaurant, day care center, etc.

The good old-fashioned handwashing, with or without soap, works wonders anywhere we are, even at home.

Norovirus and common cold viruses could contaminate food, tables, chairs, plates, cups, glasses, utensils, hand rails, door knobs, elevator buttons, dialpads, counters, tables, etc. Those surfaces are “naturally” teeming with microorganisms. This is the reason frequent handwashing and not touching the face (and those surfaces) are essential habits that significantly lower the risk of acquiring these infections. 

While the viruses we commonly encounter cause illnesses and misery, using hand sanitizers after touching handrails and doorknobs, etc., in public areas, and washing hands frequently will greatly protect us. Always be aware that germs, invisible to the naked eyes, are on our skin, especially in our hands, and are swarming, ever-present, all around us. All we have to do is to wash them away, often. 

***

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