January 19, 2017, 10:26 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07373 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.57378 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03554 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31799 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02683 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03594 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04015 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59024 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03683 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00756 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.69343 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02866 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13752 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06466 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.3697 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.21257 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 401.92732 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03975 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02636 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02027 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 13.25216 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13857 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 59.08452 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.94158 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08352 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51054 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.5802 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14047 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93074 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.20173 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29553 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37844 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45091 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01889 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04186 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01668 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01668 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08489 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.88376 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 186.70949 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15123 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.106 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15569 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45774 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14162 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28749 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.79984 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 267.35595 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07659 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.3682 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.7101 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 649.86949 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.28267 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.57599 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01421 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.28719 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08292 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.39468 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 80.11845 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 9.27525 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 18.06866 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 23.72214 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00613 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01646 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.68681 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.9229 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 30.21682 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.01144 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 1.82694 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27103 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06121 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01246 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02868 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20159 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.40323 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.15559 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.06284 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 49.94981 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16036 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.12387 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.72014 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30797 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.38807 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43213 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08957 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27209 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.32403 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58975 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17069 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1843 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02826 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00773 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06745 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06333 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.10359 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08276 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 116.05701 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0731 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08481 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.19264 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.31379 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07528 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15698 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26272 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12864 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17904 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02867 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01668 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44581 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.29592 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.96165 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 462.93516 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17511 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.33889 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27216 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.7113 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04658 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04632 Tonga Pa'ang
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07556 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1345 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.63521 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.48906 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5529 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 72.37502 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57519 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 64.9468 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20026 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 453.06163 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.15479 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05167 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 12.38747 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05421 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 12.49508 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.24312 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 5.01706 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27219 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 104.1859 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.26561 Zimbabwe dollar

Populism’s globalization polemics

We were  in between millennia and as we crossed over nearly everyone had heard of the book that would inextricably define Joseph Stieglitz.  “Globalization and its Discontents” introduced us to the paradigm that would realign the world economic order, transform free enterprise and compel monolithic conglomerates to consider breaking down their internal processes and redistribute these across different parts of the planet.

Globalization was operationalized  through various combinations and permutations metamorphosed from the traditional and had resulted in diverse and novel forms that ranged from business process outsourcing to relocating manufacturing operations to economies that offered the most optimal chemistry among revenues, costs and tax structures.

Whether one was on the supply or the demand side, the old demarcations no longer mattered. Globalization is Aldous Huxley’s “Brave New World -Revisited”. It is technology-driven and does not respect political borders.

Satellites can warn motorists of hidden policeman lurking behind corners in gridlocked Pasay City. Saudi oil transported via Panamanian Petromax tankers are sold, bought and traded several times in the high seas simply by tapping on a touch screen while commuting on an app-enabled Uber limousine . Volkswagen’s Santana is built in China alongside the VW Phaedon in a country that openly abhors luxury goods.  American jeans are sewn in Shanghai by Murjani, a company founded in India.

Technical customer service calls for woolen fleece-lined coats sold at pre-winter Black Friday weekend sales are answered in a Cebu suburb by local call center agents who’ve never seen a snowflake.

Globalization had also led to the various trade agreements, pacts and unions that govern the global economy today, each forcing domestic enterprises, no matter how small, to play by rules and regulations written and enforced by third parties.

Stieglitz had seen systemic stigma in globalization despite its inevitable development long before the very first protest by its discontents. While capital roamed the globe unhampered by physical and statutory barriers, debited and credited worldwide by clicks on keypads, less developed economies still relied on stationary brick and mortar and human capital.

While investments travelled at the speed of an internet connection thus reducing margins and optimizing costs, human assets from labor-exporting economies like the Philippines had to plod through a labyrinthine bureaucracy pockmarked and potholed by petty corruption that effectively increases costs and burdens these on those who could least afford them.

Globalization offered tremendous opportunities but its prospects for equitable development were not always inclusive. It robbed labor from old industrial towns in Michigan and transferred these to a Mexican barrio. It decimated the margins earned by American farmers when the Chinese devalued the Renminbi and made American products less competitive and more expensive. 

It wrenched away highly educated Filipinos from technical schools, created a class of drop-outs and offered them higher hourly wages in call centers whose only requisite was a proficiency in the mid western accents they mimicked.

Those in the upper-crust economy earned the widest margins. Unfortunately, those who remain merely as cogs along a globalized value chain often paid the highest social prices. 

Coffee bean farmers in the Ivory Coast are paid the equivalent of a dixie cup relative to the fantastic margins earned in a nicely appointed cafe. Exported labor broke families up and left children un-parented. 

Call center hours led to aberrant cultures if not dysfunctional social behavior. Education became utilitarian and focused on short term dead-end careers and contractual labor.

From the globalization petri dish grew the latent populism we now see. The “Have nots” in Venezuela, Brazil, South Korea and even among the glens of the United Kingdom and the “Forgotten Men” in the Rust Belt surrounding the Great Lakes in the United States, all are rebelling.

Note the numbers behind socialist presidential contender Bernie Sanders and the thousands behind the Brexit referendum. Analyze Donald Trump’s phenomenal mandate founded on building barriers, disengaging from global trade pacts and focusing on the American parochial.

Populism’s global polemic, its isolationist and anti-establishment DNA, is spawned by the gnawing failure of globalization to provide for its discontents inclusive equitable growth. Indeed the poor remain poor as opposed to the rich who’ve gotten richer. Analyze the rejection of both Hillary Clinton and Mar Roxas where both represented elitism’s continuity and the failure to recognize William Graham Sumner’s “Forgotten Man”.

Where the Occupy Wall Street protests have failed, this latent global wave of populism threatens with a vengeance. And indeed, vengeance is the most appropriate word.
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