March 30, 2017, 2:22 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07331 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.47155 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03534 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31132 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02618 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03575 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03993 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.60092 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03586 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00753 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.91895 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01996 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0278 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13715 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06246 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01996 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.30515 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20135 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 399.68057 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03988 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02669 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01966 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 13.25953 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13713 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 58.11339 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.94729 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01996 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02635 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49646 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.53643 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13669 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.9443 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17654 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.28741 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35935 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45338 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01837 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04141 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01585 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01589 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08644 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.87263 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 185.36634 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14655 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.10222 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15507 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46756 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13591 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.35316 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.67678 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 265.52206 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07197 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.29726 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.5576 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 647.3348 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18607 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.56259 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01415 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.20817 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04931 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37303 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.08964 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 9.03374 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.96766 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.12218 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00607 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01637 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.29786 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.48573 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 30.14574 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.02855 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 1.79677 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25494 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06086 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01239 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02815 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19822 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3868 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.12338 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.27091 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.87203 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15971 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.12717 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.70293 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30705 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.19445 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37646 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0879 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2547 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.28868 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58595 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16921 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08325 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02832 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00768 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01996 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06481 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06558 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.09024 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.078 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 112.66121 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07267 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08354 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.13647 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.31603 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07486 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15525 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26353 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13296 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1752 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02781 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01585 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44332 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.43102 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.96027 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 450.2196 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17413 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.28109 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25482 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.68597 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04577 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.046 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07215 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13393 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60168 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.44001 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54103 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.81074 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01996 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.55999 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 71.67099 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19904 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 454.62168 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.12378 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05122 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 12.04033 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0539 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 12.12298 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18127 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.98902 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25486 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 103.60351 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.225 Zimbabwe dollar

Populism’s globalization polemics

We were  in between millennia and as we crossed over nearly everyone had heard of the book that would inextricably define Joseph Stieglitz.  “Globalization and its Discontents” introduced us to the paradigm that would realign the world economic order, transform free enterprise and compel monolithic conglomerates to consider breaking down their internal processes and redistribute these across different parts of the planet.

Globalization was operationalized  through various combinations and permutations metamorphosed from the traditional and had resulted in diverse and novel forms that ranged from business process outsourcing to relocating manufacturing operations to economies that offered the most optimal chemistry among revenues, costs and tax structures.

Whether one was on the supply or the demand side, the old demarcations no longer mattered. Globalization is Aldous Huxley’s “Brave New World -Revisited”. It is technology-driven and does not respect political borders.

Satellites can warn motorists of hidden policeman lurking behind corners in gridlocked Pasay City. Saudi oil transported via Panamanian Petromax tankers are sold, bought and traded several times in the high seas simply by tapping on a touch screen while commuting on an app-enabled Uber limousine . Volkswagen’s Santana is built in China alongside the VW Phaedon in a country that openly abhors luxury goods.  American jeans are sewn in Shanghai by Murjani, a company founded in India.

Technical customer service calls for woolen fleece-lined coats sold at pre-winter Black Friday weekend sales are answered in a Cebu suburb by local call center agents who’ve never seen a snowflake.

Globalization had also led to the various trade agreements, pacts and unions that govern the global economy today, each forcing domestic enterprises, no matter how small, to play by rules and regulations written and enforced by third parties.

Stieglitz had seen systemic stigma in globalization despite its inevitable development long before the very first protest by its discontents. While capital roamed the globe unhampered by physical and statutory barriers, debited and credited worldwide by clicks on keypads, less developed economies still relied on stationary brick and mortar and human capital.

While investments travelled at the speed of an internet connection thus reducing margins and optimizing costs, human assets from labor-exporting economies like the Philippines had to plod through a labyrinthine bureaucracy pockmarked and potholed by petty corruption that effectively increases costs and burdens these on those who could least afford them.

Globalization offered tremendous opportunities but its prospects for equitable development were not always inclusive. It robbed labor from old industrial towns in Michigan and transferred these to a Mexican barrio. It decimated the margins earned by American farmers when the Chinese devalued the Renminbi and made American products less competitive and more expensive. 

It wrenched away highly educated Filipinos from technical schools, created a class of drop-outs and offered them higher hourly wages in call centers whose only requisite was a proficiency in the mid western accents they mimicked.

Those in the upper-crust economy earned the widest margins. Unfortunately, those who remain merely as cogs along a globalized value chain often paid the highest social prices. 

Coffee bean farmers in the Ivory Coast are paid the equivalent of a dixie cup relative to the fantastic margins earned in a nicely appointed cafe. Exported labor broke families up and left children un-parented. 

Call center hours led to aberrant cultures if not dysfunctional social behavior. Education became utilitarian and focused on short term dead-end careers and contractual labor.

From the globalization petri dish grew the latent populism we now see. The “Have nots” in Venezuela, Brazil, South Korea and even among the glens of the United Kingdom and the “Forgotten Men” in the Rust Belt surrounding the Great Lakes in the United States, all are rebelling.

Note the numbers behind socialist presidential contender Bernie Sanders and the thousands behind the Brexit referendum. Analyze Donald Trump’s phenomenal mandate founded on building barriers, disengaging from global trade pacts and focusing on the American parochial.

Populism’s global polemic, its isolationist and anti-establishment DNA, is spawned by the gnawing failure of globalization to provide for its discontents inclusive equitable growth. Indeed the poor remain poor as opposed to the rich who’ve gotten richer. Analyze the rejection of both Hillary Clinton and Mar Roxas where both represented elitism’s continuity and the failure to recognize William Graham Sumner’s “Forgotten Man”.

Where the Occupy Wall Street protests have failed, this latent global wave of populism threatens with a vengeance. And indeed, vengeance is the most appropriate word.
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