June 18, 2018, 11:31 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06887 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01763 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03375 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52595 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02519 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03338 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0375 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.56891 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03163 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00708 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 32.83293 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01875 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02508 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12845 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06994 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01875 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26852 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19282 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 375.39846 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03746 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02475 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0187 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.85955 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12072 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.23964 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.57585 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01875 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.78136 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41526 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.32833 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1203 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92481 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19301 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25282 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33377 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51078 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01616 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03862 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01411 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01411 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08774 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.8783 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 168.7418 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13756 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.86799 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14715 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44823 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11904 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.22745 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.20533 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 261.11007 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06788 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27862 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.20139 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 793.5496 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01763 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.42115 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01329 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07454 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.89293 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28161 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 75.86537 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.83274 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 16.87605 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.66229 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00567 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01538 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.31164 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 157.15357 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.23364 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.99081 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.62835 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2522 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05717 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01164 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02542 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17853 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31382 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.9715 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.27658 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.11532 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15157 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.65667 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65479 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29196 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.37802 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38672 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0747 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2516 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.71292 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58522 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15276 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03846 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02698 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00722 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01875 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06144 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05887 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.23233 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06922 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 105.94412 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06825 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07529 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.18378 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 15.92781 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07032 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1483 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25162 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33668 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16475 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02532 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01412 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41639 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 148.88431 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.53816 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 395.79974 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16407 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.65648 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25162 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.61204 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04892 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04288 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08861 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12572 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56497 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 42.52766 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49372 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.94825 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01875 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59066 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 148.13426 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1496.34352 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 427.78924 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02025 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04811 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.58541 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05063 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.58541 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.91656 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.68498 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25181 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 97.30921 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.78605 Zimbabwe dollar

Passive smoking is more deadly

SECONDHAND smoke is the fume that one involuntarily inhales after someone who smokes exhales it (called mainstream smokes), or the fume that goes directly to the atmosphere from the burning tobacco (cigarette, pipe or cigar) called side stream smoke. When non-smokers breathe in these smokes or fumes from other people’s cigarettes, cigars and pipes, this is involuntarily inhalation, called passive smoking, a more deadly source of lung diseases and cancers. Tobacco smoke contains about 4000 (yes, four thousand) chemicals, 200 of them known poisons. Some of them are benzenes, formaldehyde and carbon monoxide, which are released into the air by smokers. Not only is the smoker inhaling these poisons but so is everyone around them. 

Is secondhand smoke really more toxic?

Yes, it has been scientifically proven that secondhand smokes are more dangerous to health than firsthand smoke. The smoker, who inhales the (mainstream) smoke “filters” it so some degree before exhaling it, but the non-smoker around him/her inhales the “pure” and more dangerous sidestream smoke. Besides the tar and nicotine in secondhand smoke, there are several cancer-causing substances in secondhand smoke, and in much higher concentration than in mainstream smoke. So, the person who smokes in public, around people, is giving himself/herself a lower dose of poisons, and giving his victims (family members, friends and strangers) around him/her a higher and a more deadly dose of poison. Technically, it is criminal to “spray” harmful chemicals in the atmosphere for others to breathe in, exposing them to cancer-causing agents. Obviously, the smokers do not intentionally do this to hurt his family or other people. The smoker is simply “hooked” on this addictive habit and is simply satisfying his/her urges when he/she smokes.

Does passive smoking cause cancer?

Yes, most definitely. Smokers developing lung and other cancers from smoking tobacco is a scientifically proven fact. In the United States, cancer victims of smoking and family members of smokers who died from cigarette-related illness, have sued cigarette manufacturing companies, and have won millions in awards. While they vehemently denied before, cigarette companies today have admitted in public that tobacco causes cancers and other lung illnesses. The courts have likewise ruled in a similar fashion in favor of victims of passive smoking (as in the airline stewardess’ case). In 1986, the Surgeon General of the United States reported that involuntary (passive) smoking can cause lung cancer in healthy non-smokers. In fact, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has now classified secondhand smoke as a known carcinogen (cancer-causing agent).

Does passive smoking hurt children and infants?

More so. Young children and infants are more vulnerable to tobacco smoke and fumes. Pregnant mothers who smoke, pass these dangerous substances to the fetus, causing higher incidents of smaller babies, some with diminished mental acuity, or even wit retardation, most with babies that are prone to frequent respirator infections and asthmatic attacks. Studies have shown that in their first two years of life, babies whose parent(s) smoke(s) at home have higher incidence of lung diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia than babies of non-smokers. Smokes also aggravate asthma in children and may even precipitate attacks. Parents, especially pregnant mothers, should not smoke, but if they have to, they should do it outside the home, and away from people.
Studies have shown that, even among children without asthma, acute respiratory illnesses occur two times more often to young children whose parents smoke around them as compared to those with on-smoking parents. Passive smoking by children (secondhand smoke exposure) is associated with 150,000 to 300,000 cases of bronchitis and pneumonia each year in infants and young children less than 18 months old. We should not be doing this to our children.

How about secondhand smoke at the workplace?

The U.S. Surgeon General’s Report of 1996 established that the simple separation of smokers and non-smokers within the same air space may reduce but NOT eliminate the risk of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In view of this, an increasing number of state and local laws now restrict smoking at the workplace. The idea behind this law is that the preferences and rights of both the nonsmokers and the smokers should be considered whenever possible. However, when these choices conflict, the health and the preferences of nonsmokers should prevail and come first. More and more private companies, on their own, are also adopting policies that restrict smoking and protect nonsmokers.

What are the other adverse effects of smoking?

Besides the health hazards among smokers, and to those people around him who are forced to inhale secondhand smoke, tobacco smoking leads to environmental pollution. Burning tobacco causes bad odors, which cling to people’s clothes, hair, skin and even curtains, etc. In an air-conditioned room, the airconditioning demands can jump as much as 600 percent in order to control the bad odor of tobacco, which also lingers on. The bad odor is due to the burned chemical that penetrate our skin and the fabric of our clothes. The habit, which used to be so glamorous and very “in” is now “out” and considered “dirty”. It is also expensive and very offensive to nonsmokers. The prediction is that some day, smoking, in view of all these health hazards, will be tabooed, and smokers will be outcast.

What can be done about secondhand smoke?

Both the smokers and nonsmokers have their rights. Smokers have the right to smoke, even if smoking is bad for their health. People have the right to commit suicide. By the same token, nonsmokers have their rights also. They have the right to protect themselves and their children from unwanted cancer-causing smoke. Someone’s enjoyment should not be tolerated to be somebody else’s endangerment. Steps that could be taken: 1. Let family, friends and co-workers know that you mind if they smoke around you; 2. Put “No Smoking” signs in your home, car or office to make people aware; 3. Support legislation to restrict smoking in public places, like workplace or restaurant, movies, buses and other public places; 4. Propose non-smoking resolutions in your social/civic organization meetings; 5. Encourage management, unions and companies where you work to establish policies to protect nonsmokers on the job; and, help promote the concept of a smoke-free families in your community. After all, we have the right to say no to poisons and cancers.

***

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