September 22, 2017, 5:42 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07205 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19737 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03473 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33883 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02472 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03508 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03924 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.60624 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03223 Bulgarian Lev
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1 Philippine Peso = 34.03414 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01962 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02647 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13537 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06149 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01962 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26104 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20051 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 392.78006 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03919 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02419 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01905 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.25231 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12921 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 57.14342 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.22072 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01962 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.81263 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42857 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.49225 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12231 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92211 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19774 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25715 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34589 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45831 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01644 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03953 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01454 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01447 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08679 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.87895 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 174.63213 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14311 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.97705 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15314 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45756 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12286 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.19973 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.08986 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 260.48656 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0688 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27132 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.89582 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 658.62271 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.10712 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.56229 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01388 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.20489 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02178 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.3433 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.4585 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.05435 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.65745 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.18972 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00592 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01609 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.67785 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 162.84088 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.53698 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.99588 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.29351 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26015 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05981 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01217 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02654 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18329 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34501 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.00647 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.68236 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.14597 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15773 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.0826 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65097 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30135 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.05376 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34969 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08232 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2598 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.92564 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58623 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15332 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01197 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02683 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00755 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01962 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06369 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06268 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06494 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07028 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.25171 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07269 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0755 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.13354 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.2576 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07357 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15204 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2669 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13067 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15655 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02649 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01455 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43567 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 147.14538 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.928 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 402.77613 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17167 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.10359 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2598 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64921 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04791 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0432 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06876 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13239 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59217 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.90818 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51422 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.57092 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01962 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56582 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 158.34804 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19569 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 445.73278 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0155 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04907 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.773 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05297 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.75142 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.95017 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.90386 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25991 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 101.81479 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.10025 Zimbabwe dollar

Maring, Irma, Little Rebel

TROPICAL Storm Lekima, which had formed in the western Pacific Ocean, made landfall in the Philippine island of Luzon with maximum sustained winds of 65 km/hr., bringing heavy rain that triggered flash floods and landslides. At least 10 people were killed and 3,400 were affected. [NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Hazards for September 2007, published online October 2007, retrieved on September 12, 2017 from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/hazards/200709]

That was nearly a decade ago. Today and the past week, Hurricane Harvey dumped record-breaking rains on the Houston area of Texas and Hurricane Irma lashed Cuba and devastated the Florida Keys in the United States. Still in North America, Hurricane Jose is following Irma through the Caribbean and Hurricane Katia is tracking through parts of eastern Mexico. So many hurricanes in Trumpland now, prompting some scientists to comment how climate has worsened the impacts of Atlantic hurricanes. [Andrew King, Climate Extremes Research Fellow, University of Melbourne, “Irma and Harvey: very different storms, but both affected by climate change,” The Conversation, 12 September 2017] Incidentally, five years ago, the Donald tweeted: “The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive.” 11:15 AM – 6 Nov 2012; https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/265895292191248385?lang=en]

Here in the Philippines, Typhoon Maring was the factor behind the recent deaths of a baby boy, two teenagers and a 43-year-old Lagunense. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council had confirmed two of the deaths that was caused by a rain-induced landslide. [http://www.malaya.com.ph/business-news/news/4-dead-‘maring’] More than 50 years ago, an earlier Maring (Tropical Depression 11W) had formed in the open Pacific Ocean on 21 July 1964 but had dissipated only two days later east of the Philippines, without making landfall.

The flooding caused by the recent tropical depression is a feature of life in this Austronesian maritime country of coastal dwellers, informal settlers and kaingeros. For instance, on 22 September 1941, Manuel L. Quezon, as President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, proclaimed the existence of a public calamity in the Province of Pampanga as a result of floods that had wrought havoc among the inhabitants.

As if that was not tragic enough, three months after Quezon’s Proclamation No. 753, Hirohito’s hordes invaded the Pearl of the Orient. So, is there a connection between climate change and conflict among human societies? If we agree with the Norwegian Nobel Committee and its Peace Prize awardee for 2007, then the answer must be in the affirmative.

“There are many lessons in human history which provide adequate warning about the chaos and destruction that could take place if we remain guilty of myopic indifference to the progressive erosion and decline of nature’s resources. Much has been written, for instance, about the Maya civilization, which flourished during 250–950 AD, but collapsed largely as a result of serious and prolonged drought. Even earlier, some 4000 years ago a number of well-known Bronze Age cultures also crumbled extending from the Mediterranean to the Indus Valley, including the civilizations, which had blossomed in Mesopotamia. More recent examples of societies that collapsed or faced chaos on account of depletion or degradation of natural resources include the Khmer Empire in South East Asia, Eastern Island, and several others. Changes in climate have historically determined periods of peace as well as conflict. The recent work of David Zhang has, in fact, highlighted the link between temperature fluctuations, reduced agricultural production, and the frequency of warfare in Eastern China over the last millennium.” [https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2007/ipcc-lectur...

The Asian and African mega-deltas, due to large populations and high exposure to sea level rise, are regions likely to be especially affected by climate change, with storm surges and river flooding shown to be catastrophic and possibly fatal to nations like the Maldives, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Nobel Peace Prize 2007 Lecture]

Clearly, public institutions have to upgrade their crisis and emergency management paradigms to deal with both natural and man-made hazards, recalling that on 02 December 1937, President Quezon created the National Flood Control Board to act in an advisory capacity to the government, then four years later, Quezon and the Commonwealth was embroiled in the Pacific War.

The dissonance re-echoes further with continuing news coverage of the impacts of Atlantic hurricanes in USA’s East Coast coincident with forest fires in America’s West Coast. Global warming palpable in Arizona. As well as in California where the Third Conference on WWII in the Philippines was recently held in San Francisco.

At this conference, experts and survivors from the Philippines, Canada and the United States were empaneled as a historical jury to discuss the Japanese “Hell Ships,” Tokyo’s war crimes in the Philippines and the role of the guerrillas during the Liberation of the Philippines, thereby helping American teachers make lesson plans and implementing California’s U.S. history curriculum framework for Grade 11.

The conference was sponsored by the Bataan Legacy Historical Society and the panel included Col. John Haramalis (an expert on war crimes who led a NATO Multinational Task Force against the last six internationally indicted fugitive war criminals in Bosnia), James Erickson (the leading expert on the Hell Ships), and Prof. Karganilla (from the University of the Philippines who has done extensive research on the guerrillas for the last 35 years). [http://usa.inquirer.net/6392/3rd-conference-world-war-ii-ph-set-san-fran...

Co-sponsored by Memorare Manila 1945 and the Philippine Studies Program of the University of San Francisco, this third annual conference “World War II in the Philippines” also featured Alice Benitez who not only survived Hirohito’s “sacred” war but also witnessed the activities of the guerrillas. She told the audience at the McLaren Conference Center: “I remember one time a runner warned us that there were some Japanese soldiers dropping by a store two houses away from ours. Lt. Ramsey was hastily escorted to the nipa hut at our backyard.”

“During Lt. Ramsey’s stay, there were two Americans who came frequently to our house. They were Capt. Charles Putnam and a young pilot. Capt. Putnam was the Commanding Officer of the Pangasinan-Tarlac Military District and my father was his deputy.”

“Since I was always in their midst, Capt. Putnam called me the ‘Little Rebel’.”
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