November 18, 2017, 1:35 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07227 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.22452 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03503 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34355 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02607 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03503 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03935 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.64187 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0327 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00742 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.29713 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01968 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02667 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13499 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0645 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01968 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28247 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20681 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 393.93939 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03931 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02511 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01951 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.40988 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13051 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 59.13813 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.08422 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01968 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.83943 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42677 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.47954 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12411 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94451 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.25075 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2609 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34652 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53227 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01667 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04117 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0149 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01491 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0895 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92483 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 177.2137 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14447 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.05313 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15372 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46232 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12613 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.21291 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.19481 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 266.09603 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06915 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27847 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.9634 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 693.36875 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02755 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.47068 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01392 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21558 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03994 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37194 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.10272 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.33333 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.70956 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.5429 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00594 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01614 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.52952 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.2625 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.73239 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.02145 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.44392 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27873 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05999 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01221 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02676 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18535 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34406 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.02145 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.82015 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.01181 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15831 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.91558 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.66706 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30638 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.09681 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37473 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08186 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27564 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.02479 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60232 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16201 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03758 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02897 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00757 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01968 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06374 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06312 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07261 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07062 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.06651 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07477 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07746 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.16854 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.37721 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07379 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15368 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26269 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13104 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16586 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02669 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01491 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43695 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.94097 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.99961 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 408.72688 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17218 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.13341 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2756 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64542 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04872 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04538 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07647 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13045 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59144 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.97875 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52076 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.36954 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01968 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57989 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 158.20543 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19628 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 446.89099 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.12515 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05043 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.9329 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05313 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.93861 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.9754 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.91834 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27568 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 102.11531 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.12121 Zimbabwe dollar

Maring, Irma, Little Rebel

TROPICAL Storm Lekima, which had formed in the western Pacific Ocean, made landfall in the Philippine island of Luzon with maximum sustained winds of 65 km/hr., bringing heavy rain that triggered flash floods and landslides. At least 10 people were killed and 3,400 were affected. [NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Hazards for September 2007, published online October 2007, retrieved on September 12, 2017 from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/hazards/200709]

That was nearly a decade ago. Today and the past week, Hurricane Harvey dumped record-breaking rains on the Houston area of Texas and Hurricane Irma lashed Cuba and devastated the Florida Keys in the United States. Still in North America, Hurricane Jose is following Irma through the Caribbean and Hurricane Katia is tracking through parts of eastern Mexico. So many hurricanes in Trumpland now, prompting some scientists to comment how climate has worsened the impacts of Atlantic hurricanes. [Andrew King, Climate Extremes Research Fellow, University of Melbourne, “Irma and Harvey: very different storms, but both affected by climate change,” The Conversation, 12 September 2017] Incidentally, five years ago, the Donald tweeted: “The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive.” 11:15 AM – 6 Nov 2012; https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/265895292191248385?lang=en]

Here in the Philippines, Typhoon Maring was the factor behind the recent deaths of a baby boy, two teenagers and a 43-year-old Lagunense. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council had confirmed two of the deaths that was caused by a rain-induced landslide. [http://www.malaya.com.ph/business-news/news/4-dead-‘maring’] More than 50 years ago, an earlier Maring (Tropical Depression 11W) had formed in the open Pacific Ocean on 21 July 1964 but had dissipated only two days later east of the Philippines, without making landfall.

The flooding caused by the recent tropical depression is a feature of life in this Austronesian maritime country of coastal dwellers, informal settlers and kaingeros. For instance, on 22 September 1941, Manuel L. Quezon, as President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, proclaimed the existence of a public calamity in the Province of Pampanga as a result of floods that had wrought havoc among the inhabitants.

As if that was not tragic enough, three months after Quezon’s Proclamation No. 753, Hirohito’s hordes invaded the Pearl of the Orient. So, is there a connection between climate change and conflict among human societies? If we agree with the Norwegian Nobel Committee and its Peace Prize awardee for 2007, then the answer must be in the affirmative.

“There are many lessons in human history which provide adequate warning about the chaos and destruction that could take place if we remain guilty of myopic indifference to the progressive erosion and decline of nature’s resources. Much has been written, for instance, about the Maya civilization, which flourished during 250–950 AD, but collapsed largely as a result of serious and prolonged drought. Even earlier, some 4000 years ago a number of well-known Bronze Age cultures also crumbled extending from the Mediterranean to the Indus Valley, including the civilizations, which had blossomed in Mesopotamia. More recent examples of societies that collapsed or faced chaos on account of depletion or degradation of natural resources include the Khmer Empire in South East Asia, Eastern Island, and several others. Changes in climate have historically determined periods of peace as well as conflict. The recent work of David Zhang has, in fact, highlighted the link between temperature fluctuations, reduced agricultural production, and the frequency of warfare in Eastern China over the last millennium.” [https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2007/ipcc-lectur...

The Asian and African mega-deltas, due to large populations and high exposure to sea level rise, are regions likely to be especially affected by climate change, with storm surges and river flooding shown to be catastrophic and possibly fatal to nations like the Maldives, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Nobel Peace Prize 2007 Lecture]

Clearly, public institutions have to upgrade their crisis and emergency management paradigms to deal with both natural and man-made hazards, recalling that on 02 December 1937, President Quezon created the National Flood Control Board to act in an advisory capacity to the government, then four years later, Quezon and the Commonwealth was embroiled in the Pacific War.

The dissonance re-echoes further with continuing news coverage of the impacts of Atlantic hurricanes in USA’s East Coast coincident with forest fires in America’s West Coast. Global warming palpable in Arizona. As well as in California where the Third Conference on WWII in the Philippines was recently held in San Francisco.

At this conference, experts and survivors from the Philippines, Canada and the United States were empaneled as a historical jury to discuss the Japanese “Hell Ships,” Tokyo’s war crimes in the Philippines and the role of the guerrillas during the Liberation of the Philippines, thereby helping American teachers make lesson plans and implementing California’s U.S. history curriculum framework for Grade 11.

The conference was sponsored by the Bataan Legacy Historical Society and the panel included Col. John Haramalis (an expert on war crimes who led a NATO Multinational Task Force against the last six internationally indicted fugitive war criminals in Bosnia), James Erickson (the leading expert on the Hell Ships), and Prof. Karganilla (from the University of the Philippines who has done extensive research on the guerrillas for the last 35 years). [http://usa.inquirer.net/6392/3rd-conference-world-war-ii-ph-set-san-fran...

Co-sponsored by Memorare Manila 1945 and the Philippine Studies Program of the University of San Francisco, this third annual conference “World War II in the Philippines” also featured Alice Benitez who not only survived Hirohito’s “sacred” war but also witnessed the activities of the guerrillas. She told the audience at the McLaren Conference Center: “I remember one time a runner warned us that there were some Japanese soldiers dropping by a store two houses away from ours. Lt. Ramsey was hastily escorted to the nipa hut at our backyard.”

“During Lt. Ramsey’s stay, there were two Americans who came frequently to our house. They were Capt. Charles Putnam and a young pilot. Capt. Putnam was the Commanding Officer of the Pangasinan-Tarlac Military District and my father was his deputy.”

“Since I was always in their midst, Capt. Putnam called me the ‘Little Rebel’.”
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