June 26, 2018, 12:48 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06901 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02912 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03401 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5072 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02524 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03345 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03758 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.57159 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03155 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00712 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 32.90079 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02526 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1289 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07111 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28053 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19402 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 376.17437 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03754 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02493 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01856 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.99061 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12218 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.75385 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.57591 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.77772 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41526 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.33615 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12016 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92728 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1963 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25225 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33484 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51146 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01612 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03918 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01416 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01417 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08979 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.87956 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 169.07178 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14072 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.87599 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14741 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44878 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11882 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24803 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.23224 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 264.43067 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06764 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27568 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.24728 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 798.38407 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03119 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.45509 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01333 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06417 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.89121 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28183 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 76.00526 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.92522 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 16.91094 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.86622 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00568 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01541 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.38595 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.00451 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.292 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98572 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.74709 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25254 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05728 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01166 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02548 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1786 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3177 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.98891 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.98647 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.97896 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15183 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.67042 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65295 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29256 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.4053 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37584 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07518 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25239 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.72679 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59207 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15205 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03401 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02719 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00723 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06134 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0609 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.28222 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06966 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.55769 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06839 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07509 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.18236 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 15.96073 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07046 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1479 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25235 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33738 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16635 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02551 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01417 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41725 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.94363 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.72905 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 394.98309 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16441 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.67644 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25202 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.61856 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04882 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04333 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08786 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12682 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56924 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 42.63435 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49267 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 72.51597 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59451 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 147.50094 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1499.4363 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 430.10147 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07159 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0488 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.56614 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05073 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.56614 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92165 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.69466 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25241 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 97.51033 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.80008 Zimbabwe dollar

March of memory

IT is the year 2022 in New York City. Roth: I haven’t eaten like this in years. Thorn: I never ate like this.

Roth: And now you know what you’ve been missing. There was a world once. You punk. 

Thorn: Yes. So you keep telling me.

Roth: I was there. I can prove it.

Thorn: I know. I know. When you were young. People were better.

Roth: Oh. Nuts. People were always rotten. But the world was beautiful.” [Dialogue from the 1973 film Soylent Green]

Is memory a human mind displaced in space and time? [Holly Norman, “‘The Future Is A Return To The Past’: Space, Time and Memory in The Time Machine and The Island Of Doctor Moreau”] A mind that leaves the present to return to a bygone moment because it generates a nice feeling. “For members of the allegedly ‘greatest’ generation one’s date of birth could make a considerable difference when it came to service in World War II. Sixteen when Pearl harbor was attacked, I turned 18 early in 1943. To escape summons by the army, I enlisted in the navy and got myself assigned to the V-12 officer-training program. Happily the navy, as months passed, was not taking casualties at worst-case projections, and I remained in Harvard’s V-12 unit for two winters, taking regular college courses. Training, so-called, turned out to be a matter of once-a-week close-order drill exercises.” [Warner Berthoff, “Memories Of Okinawa,” Sewanee Review, Volume 121, Number 1, Winter 2013, pp. 144-150]

But what if the yesteryears were a nightmare? “Eight months after V-J Day, Life magazine ran a story, ‘Home to Chichi Jima,’ telling of the war-crimes trial of two Japanese officers charged with executing American fliers shot down over the Bonin Islands and ‘even more revolting, of practicing cannibalism on them.’ I read the piece as a Yale freshman, not long out of the Navy. It brought back memories of the worst hours I spent during the war.” [George Bush with Victor Gold. Looking Forward. An Autobiography. New York: Bantam, July 1988, p. 32]

“The savage beatings on the rail embankments, the withholding of life-saving drugs, the starvation rations withheld (no work, no eat) opened the door of death to thousands. Each of these deaths should be described as deliberate murder.” [Les Atkinson. My Side of the Kwai. Reminiscences of an Australian prisoner of war of the Japanese. Australia: Kangaroo Press, 2001, p. 126]

“The Japanese strategic objectives (later determined by captured war records) were complete hegemony in Asia and unchallenged supremacy in the western Pacific. This involved the immediate conquest and subjugation of the Philippines and the capture of the immense natural resources of the Netherlands East Indies and Malaya.” [Douglas MacArthur. Reminiscences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964, p. 111]

“We declared furthermore that the danger of a fascist victory in Germany – a danger for the world revolution and above all for the Soviet Union – was more real and more imminent than the danger of Japanese intervention.” [Leon Trotsky, “Hitler and the Red Army,” Originally written in Turkey, March 21, 1933]

World War II, bad vibes, ya? So what should we remember? The world of 1898 and its anniversaries? “In 1998 the Philippines observed the centenary of the proclamation of Philippine independence from Spain on 12 June 1898…I was one of the five million or so ecstatic Filipinos jamming the Rizal Park.” [Leslie E. Bauzon, A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Philippine History and for Filipino Nation Building,” Area Studies Tsukuba 24:153-164, 2005]

“Spain’s conquest of the Maranao was perhaps near in sight, but the announcement of Commodore Dewey’s victory over the Spanish navy at Manila Bay in 1898 (then, an event in the Spanish-American War) averted the Spanish success. In that year, the Spanish high command ordered the abandonment of Lake Lanao, preparatory to the shipment of Spanish forces to Zamboanga and ultimately, to Spain.” [Mamitua Saber, “Maranao Resistance To Foreign Invasions,” PSR 27 (1979), pp. 273-282]

“The Dictatorial Government decided that the proclamation of Independence should take place on the 12th June, the ceremony in connection therewith to be held in the town of Kawit. With this object in view I sent a Commission to inform the Admiral (Dewey) of the arrangement and invite him to be present on the occasion of the formal proclamation of Independence, a ceremony which was solemnly and impressively conducted. The Admiral sent his Secretary to excuse him from taking part in the proceedings, stating the day fixed for the ceremony was mail day.” [Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy. True Version of the Philippine Revolution. Tarlak, September 23, 1899]

Too far back? How about the martial law period? “The turbulent history of the country to this day is a reminder that the inheritors of the mantle of leadership have not been succeeding either in plotting a successful course for the country. History has its day of reckoning.” [Gerardo P. Sicat, The Economic Legacy of Marcos, Discussion Paper No. 2011-11, November 2011]

“The peso and the presidency, in more ways than one, are correlative terms in this democracy of ours. Both reflect the health or sickness of the nation; both affect the lives of millions of people.” [Renato Constantino, “The Devaluation of Mr. Marcos,” Manila Chronicle, December 5, 1970]

“I noticed in the morning news summary before I left Washington that the President of the Philippines, Mr. Marcos, is reviewing the Philippine relationship with the United States. I think these potential developments to some extent tend to validate the so-called domino theory, and if we have one country after another, allies of the United States, losing faith in our word, losing faith in our agreements with them, yes, I think the first one to go could vitally affect the national security of the United States.” [Gerald R. Ford: “The President’s News Conference,” March 17, 1975; The American Presidency Project, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/]

The year 1898 was also the year when the Egyptian mummy known as the Younger Lady (Nefertiti?) was found in tomb KV35. Who knew? Who remembers? Do you care?
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