February 24, 2018, 12:13 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07045 UAE Dirham
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.03415 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38059 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02443 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03415 Aruba Florin
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Bermuda Dollar
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.13159 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06235 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2325 Bhutan Ngultrum
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1 Philippine Peso = 384.03989 Belarus Ruble
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.02429 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.018 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.42605 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12152 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.88202 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.87186 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.71801 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.39493 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.3921 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11601 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94226 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17652 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24369 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33858 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52177 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01557 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03825 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01371 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01377 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08533 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89967 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 172.74122 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14073 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.9296 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15011 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45024 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11584 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.216 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.85824 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 261.23153 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06714 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24329 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.71245 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 713.12103 Iran Rial
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1 Philippine Peso = 2.40936 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01359 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0619 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.9413 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.3061 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 77.09572 Cambodia Riel
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1 Philippine Peso = 17.26453 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.55496 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00575 Kuwaiti Dinar
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1 Philippine Peso = 6.12565 Kazakhstan Tenge
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.22463 Lesotho Loti
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1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06472 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.82716 Paraguayan Guarani
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07256 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.0862 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.12737 Rwanda Franc
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.2582 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34501 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15536 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02534 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01372 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42597 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.36485 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.78074 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 381.75523 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16785 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.87876 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22325 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60368 Thai Baht
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.0428 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07262 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12717 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.55966 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.06541 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51746 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 69.67197 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54556 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 156.62766 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 478.3426 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 435.71839 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 1.98465 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04817 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.20986 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05179 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.20986 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.85248 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.79474 Yemen Riyal
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Malvar: A hero’s call

HE was the “commanding general of the forces of the departmental government of Batangas” of the Philippine Republic, and with this authority he gave Agueda Kahabagan her military commission as a General of the Revolution. [http://malacanang.gov.ph/3622-artemio-ricarte-on-the-arrest-and-executio...

And the Philippines celebrated his 152nd birth anniversary last Wednesday, September 27. In fact, four members of the Research, Publications and Heraldry Division of the National Historical Commission of the Philippines sponsored the first school premiere of “Miguel Malvar: Dulo ng Digmaan” at the Philippine History and Master of Management classes of Prof. Karganilla at the College of Arts and Sciences as part of the Area Studies Week of the University of the Philippines Manila.

Produced by Ninjadog Studios Inc., the new Malvar documentary re-introduces the successor of Aguinaldo as Commander-in-chief of the Philippine Republic that was inaugurated at Malolos in 1899. This 30-minute biopic of General (and later President) Malvar features some of his descendants (Dr. Bernardo M. Villegas, Gabby Malvar).

Directed by Louise Mendoza, the well-made “Miguel Malvar: Dulo ng Digmaan” not only fleshes out the humanity of the “Blade of Batangas” but also brings home to Filipino viewers the inhumanity of the invaders during the Philippine-American War. The short film presents Malvar as a farmer and family man, as gobernadorcillo and Katipunero, and as guerrilla general.

This documentary is expected to be shared with the citizens of the Pearl of the Orient who are urged to learn more from official (http://malacanang.gov.ph/76527-general-miguel-malvar/) and scholarly sources:

(1) General Miguel Malvar, along with General Paciano Rizal, opposed the Aguinaldo-Spanish truce signed at Biak-na-Bato, as unnecessary, if not detrimental to the cause of the Revolution. [Floro Quibuyen, “Rizal and Filipino Nationalism: Critical Issues,” Philippine Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2002, pp. 193-229]

(2) “During the Philippine Revolution, he led his troops in the Battles of Indang, Bailen, Magallanes, and Alfonso, all fought in Cavite. He was soon promoted to General and was named Commanding General of Batangas upon the organization of the Revolutionary Government. In the Philippine-American War, General Malvar led his armies in the Battle of San Pedro Tunasan, Calamba, and Cabuyao in Laguna. Eventually, he was commissioned Division General in charge of all the provinces in Southern Luzon. When President Emilio Aguinaldo was captured on March 23, 1901, Malvar assumed control of all the Filipino forces, reversing President Aguinaldo’s declaration of surrender. As the American Civil Government was established in the provinces, the resistance led by General Malvar in Batangas continued to attack American forces with great losses on his side. He eventually surrendered to the Americans on April 16, 1902, in Batangas, having been betrayed by his former officers.” [Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. The Official Calendar of the Republic of the Philippines: An Almanac of Philippine Commemorations. Enlivened With Illustrations And Information. Manila: Office of the President of the Philippines, 2014, p. 202]

(3) By June of 1902, General Malvar, along with General Lukban, had been the “sole remaining Filipino chiefs of any prominence.” [William R. Shepherd, “Record of Political Events,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 2, June 1902, pp. 346-368]

(4) “The skilled command of Major General Miguel Malvar and massive civilian support throughout the region created a hostile environment for American troops, who in frustration turned to increasingly vicious tactics.” [Matthew David Shouse. “Foreign Occupation And The Development Of Filipino Nationalism.” A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School University of Missouri. In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts. December 2010. pages 56-57]

(5) “General Malvar, however, who was commander in chief of the Batangas zone, assumed leadership, first of Southern Luzon and later of what remained of the entire revolutionary army. From Mount Makiling, his hiding place within forty miles of Manila, he issued a manifesto stating that it was his purpose to struggle until the recognition of Philippine Independence, leaving to the Central Committee in Hong Kong the solution of the diplomatic problem. Malvar was for more than a year longer able to elude his American pursuers and to maintain guerrilla warfare in the department of southern Luzon which comprised the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Tayabas and Mindoro.” [Maximo Manguiat Kalaw. The Development Of Philippine Politics (1872-1920): An Account Of The Part Played By The Filipino Leaders And Parties In The Political Development Of The Philippines. Manila: Oriental Commercial Company, Inc., 1927]

(6) “Malvar, like Mabini and the Guerreros, was the embodiment of the glory of Filipino youth.” [Speech of His Excellency Carlos P. Garcia, President of the Philippines, As we commemorate Magsaysay Day, Delivered at the Luneta Independence Grandstand on August 31, 1957]

Somebody should bring Malvar to life in this week’s Cosplay Mania 2017 at the SMX Convention Center. 
Other items of recent interest:

(1)“As we mark the 45th year since the declaration of Martial Law under Marcos, we remember the brave men and women who offered their lives during those brutal years to restore the Greenpeace is strongly calling for accountability for those martial law atrocities that were imposed against our nation, against our people. We call on our Government to fulfill its duty to protect the human rights of Filipinos. Never again should we allow our human rights to be trampled.” [Greenpeace Statement on the 45th anniversary of the Declaration of Martial Law]

(2) What defines the essence of the authoritarian personality is...the inability to rely on one’s self, to be independent, to put it in other words: to endure freedom. The opposite of the authoritarian character is the mature person: a person who does not need to cling to others because he actively embraces and grasps the world, the people, and the things around him.” [Erich Fromm, “The Authoritarian Personality,” Deutsche Universitätszeitung, Band 12 (Nr. 9, 1957), pp. 3-4]

(3) “My present viewpoint on absolute liberalism, anarchism, and even democracy is that these things are fine in theory, but not feasible in practice...” [Mao Zedong, “Communism And Dictatorship,” Extracted from two letters to Ts’ai Ho-sen in November 1920 and January 1921]

Any successor to President Malvar becomes worthy of his legacy by crushing the Chinese mafia, Vietnamese poachers, Islamic terrorists and other alien invasive species infesting the Haringbayan.
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