November 21, 2017, 2:12 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07222 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.23697 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.035 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34334 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02609 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.035 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03933 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.63992 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03265 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00741 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.27689 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02668 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13491 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06405 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28171 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20626 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 393.707 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03929 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0252 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01953 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.51721 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13055 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 59.27237 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.06096 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.84798 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42782 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.47748 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12472 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93215 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.25679 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26216 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34612 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53196 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01676 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0411 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01485 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01485 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.09043 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92566 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 176.89283 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14439 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.01731 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15359 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46264 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12608 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.21691 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.23442 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 266.33236 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06904 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28012 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.94985 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 692.86138 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03638 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.46903 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01391 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.2151 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03441 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37082 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 78.99705 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.32547 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.69912 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.59685 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00593 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01613 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.50443 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.16618 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.60669 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.02262 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.44897 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2763 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05995 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0122 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02689 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18578 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34307 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.02635 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.80433 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.94494 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15822 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.90266 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6647 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30619 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.0885 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37348 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08155 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27622 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.00098 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60177 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16317 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03638 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02891 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00756 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06359 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06374 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06568 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07087 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 110.87513 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07473 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07785 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.16841 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.36755 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07374 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15449 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26735 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13097 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16686 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0267 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01486 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4367 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.85251 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.99312 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 410.64307 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17207 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.12743 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27624 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64562 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04905 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04547 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07723 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13037 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59133 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.93314 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51976 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.28811 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01967 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57699 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 158.89873 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19617 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 446.39136 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.10089 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05108 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.98368 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0531 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.988 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.98682 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.91504 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2763 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 102.05507 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.11701 Zimbabwe dollar

Malvar: A hero’s call

HE was the “commanding general of the forces of the departmental government of Batangas” of the Philippine Republic, and with this authority he gave Agueda Kahabagan her military commission as a General of the Revolution. [http://malacanang.gov.ph/3622-artemio-ricarte-on-the-arrest-and-executio...

And the Philippines celebrated his 152nd birth anniversary last Wednesday, September 27. In fact, four members of the Research, Publications and Heraldry Division of the National Historical Commission of the Philippines sponsored the first school premiere of “Miguel Malvar: Dulo ng Digmaan” at the Philippine History and Master of Management classes of Prof. Karganilla at the College of Arts and Sciences as part of the Area Studies Week of the University of the Philippines Manila.

Produced by Ninjadog Studios Inc., the new Malvar documentary re-introduces the successor of Aguinaldo as Commander-in-chief of the Philippine Republic that was inaugurated at Malolos in 1899. This 30-minute biopic of General (and later President) Malvar features some of his descendants (Dr. Bernardo M. Villegas, Gabby Malvar).

Directed by Louise Mendoza, the well-made “Miguel Malvar: Dulo ng Digmaan” not only fleshes out the humanity of the “Blade of Batangas” but also brings home to Filipino viewers the inhumanity of the invaders during the Philippine-American War. The short film presents Malvar as a farmer and family man, as gobernadorcillo and Katipunero, and as guerrilla general.

This documentary is expected to be shared with the citizens of the Pearl of the Orient who are urged to learn more from official (http://malacanang.gov.ph/76527-general-miguel-malvar/) and scholarly sources:

(1) General Miguel Malvar, along with General Paciano Rizal, opposed the Aguinaldo-Spanish truce signed at Biak-na-Bato, as unnecessary, if not detrimental to the cause of the Revolution. [Floro Quibuyen, “Rizal and Filipino Nationalism: Critical Issues,” Philippine Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2002, pp. 193-229]

(2) “During the Philippine Revolution, he led his troops in the Battles of Indang, Bailen, Magallanes, and Alfonso, all fought in Cavite. He was soon promoted to General and was named Commanding General of Batangas upon the organization of the Revolutionary Government. In the Philippine-American War, General Malvar led his armies in the Battle of San Pedro Tunasan, Calamba, and Cabuyao in Laguna. Eventually, he was commissioned Division General in charge of all the provinces in Southern Luzon. When President Emilio Aguinaldo was captured on March 23, 1901, Malvar assumed control of all the Filipino forces, reversing President Aguinaldo’s declaration of surrender. As the American Civil Government was established in the provinces, the resistance led by General Malvar in Batangas continued to attack American forces with great losses on his side. He eventually surrendered to the Americans on April 16, 1902, in Batangas, having been betrayed by his former officers.” [Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. The Official Calendar of the Republic of the Philippines: An Almanac of Philippine Commemorations. Enlivened With Illustrations And Information. Manila: Office of the President of the Philippines, 2014, p. 202]

(3) By June of 1902, General Malvar, along with General Lukban, had been the “sole remaining Filipino chiefs of any prominence.” [William R. Shepherd, “Record of Political Events,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 2, June 1902, pp. 346-368]

(4) “The skilled command of Major General Miguel Malvar and massive civilian support throughout the region created a hostile environment for American troops, who in frustration turned to increasingly vicious tactics.” [Matthew David Shouse. “Foreign Occupation And The Development Of Filipino Nationalism.” A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School University of Missouri. In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts. December 2010. pages 56-57]

(5) “General Malvar, however, who was commander in chief of the Batangas zone, assumed leadership, first of Southern Luzon and later of what remained of the entire revolutionary army. From Mount Makiling, his hiding place within forty miles of Manila, he issued a manifesto stating that it was his purpose to struggle until the recognition of Philippine Independence, leaving to the Central Committee in Hong Kong the solution of the diplomatic problem. Malvar was for more than a year longer able to elude his American pursuers and to maintain guerrilla warfare in the department of southern Luzon which comprised the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Tayabas and Mindoro.” [Maximo Manguiat Kalaw. The Development Of Philippine Politics (1872-1920): An Account Of The Part Played By The Filipino Leaders And Parties In The Political Development Of The Philippines. Manila: Oriental Commercial Company, Inc., 1927]

(6) “Malvar, like Mabini and the Guerreros, was the embodiment of the glory of Filipino youth.” [Speech of His Excellency Carlos P. Garcia, President of the Philippines, As we commemorate Magsaysay Day, Delivered at the Luneta Independence Grandstand on August 31, 1957]

Somebody should bring Malvar to life in this week’s Cosplay Mania 2017 at the SMX Convention Center. 
Other items of recent interest:

(1)“As we mark the 45th year since the declaration of Martial Law under Marcos, we remember the brave men and women who offered their lives during those brutal years to restore the Greenpeace is strongly calling for accountability for those martial law atrocities that were imposed against our nation, against our people. We call on our Government to fulfill its duty to protect the human rights of Filipinos. Never again should we allow our human rights to be trampled.” [Greenpeace Statement on the 45th anniversary of the Declaration of Martial Law]

(2) What defines the essence of the authoritarian personality is...the inability to rely on one’s self, to be independent, to put it in other words: to endure freedom. The opposite of the authoritarian character is the mature person: a person who does not need to cling to others because he actively embraces and grasps the world, the people, and the things around him.” [Erich Fromm, “The Authoritarian Personality,” Deutsche Universitätszeitung, Band 12 (Nr. 9, 1957), pp. 3-4]

(3) “My present viewpoint on absolute liberalism, anarchism, and even democracy is that these things are fine in theory, but not feasible in practice...” [Mao Zedong, “Communism And Dictatorship,” Extracted from two letters to Ts’ai Ho-sen in November 1920 and January 1921]

Any successor to President Malvar becomes worthy of his legacy by crushing the Chinese mafia, Vietnamese poachers, Islamic terrorists and other alien invasive species infesting the Haringbayan.
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