January 22, 2018, 12:40 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07248 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.15117 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03513 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37432 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02466 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03513 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03947 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.63391 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0315 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00743 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.55654 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01974 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02619 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13539 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06307 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01974 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.25863 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19114 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 395.1056 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03943 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02465 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01899 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.98717 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12629 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 56.09039 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.14821 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01974 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.78074 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.40983 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.49517 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12017 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94356 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.24754 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25256 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34873 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.537 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01614 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03952 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01423 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01424 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08955 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.95481 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 177.50149 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14478 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.06335 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15424 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4645 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11993 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2536 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.98796 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 262.6801 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06734 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2595 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.36688 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 722.49855 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02684 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.44306 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01395 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18305 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02388 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.36803 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.05665 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.11131 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.76199 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.05013 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00592 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01618 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.40616 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.40439 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.70989 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.03631 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.51372 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24018 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06017 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01225 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02645 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1822 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33221 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.99072 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.54431 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.6416 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15887 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.94691 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64535 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3059 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.08092 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.36718 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07768 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24178 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.06532 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6045 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15516 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01397 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02711 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00759 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01974 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06337 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06241 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17782 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06737 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 110.75588 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07183 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07523 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.11021 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.49398 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07401 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15294 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26317 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13811 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15903 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02605 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01423 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43825 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 150.5822 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 11.09138 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 395.67793 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17269 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.16341 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24082 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.62838 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04813 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04392 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07512 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1331 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57902 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.22736 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56937 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.46241 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01974 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56325 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 160.3513 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19686 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 447.97712 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03691 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0496 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.5818 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05329 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.49813 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92441 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.9329 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24034 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 102.41761 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.14229 Zimbabwe dollar

In the heart

HERE aboard the USS Hornet Sea, Air and Space Museum, a student of history can learn STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) through the lens of a WWII era aircraft carrier, the preservation of thousands of valuable artifacts, seamanship (especially for naval cadets), and the lessons of trans-oceanic war.

Berthed at Pier 3, Alameda Point, California, the 10-story tall, city-block long warship is the home of 6,000 historically significant artifacts and 25 exhibits, providing researchers, tourists and war-fighters with highlights of the Second World War, Cold War and the American Space Program. The warship CV-8 carried the gutsy Doolittle Raiders in 1942 and the postwar USS Hornet was the naval vessel that made the perfect recovery of the Apollo 11 space capsule.

Aboard the aircraft carrier, we saw the USS Hornet Legacy, five-inch naval guns, a flight simulator, the Apollo Splashdown Exhibit, a torpedo workshop and the Air Group 11 Exhibit, among others. This American national treasure in its eighth iteration was commissioned as a CV (No. 12) on 29 November 1943 (the same day when Yugoslav partisan commander Josip Broz Tito formed a temporary government in Jajce, Bosnia), carried 100 warplanes and a crew of 3,400, survived 59 Japanese attacks, and had gone 15 months at sea (without docking) in a war patrol in the Pacific.

The first USS Hornet (CV-8) of WWII (a Yorktown-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy) had launched the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo and joined its victorious sister-ships in the Battle of Midway, while the second USS Hornet (the Essex-class CV-12) of WWII raided enemy units on Tinian and Saipan, destroyed Japanese assets in “The Marianas Turkey Shoot,” was in the Battle for Leyte Gulf, and joined Operation Magic Carpet. The historic CV-8 was unfortunately sunk at the Battle of Santa Cruz (27 October 1942), but CV-12 went on to participate in the Vietnam War and assist in the first Moon landing programs.

The USS Hornet aircraft carrier as CV-12 was never hit by Japanese bombs, torpedoes and kamikaze suicide planes and its pilots shot down a record 62 enemy aircraft in one day (Marianas Turkey Shoot) and 255 Nipponese warplanes in one month. In fact, the Presidential Unit Citation from the Secretary of the Navy to the USS Hornet and her attached Air Groups, dated 1945, credited the battle group for the following operations: March 29 to May 1,1944, Palau, Hollandia, Truk; June 11 to August 5, 1944, Marianas, Bonins, Yap; September 6 to 24, 1944, Philippines, Palau: AG-2 (VF-2, VB-2, VT-2, Part of VFN-76); October 10 to November 22, 1944, Ryukyus, Formosa, Philippines, Luzon; December 14 to 16, 1944, Luzon; January 3 to 22, 1945, Philippines, Formosa, China Sea, Ryukyus: AG-11 (VF-11, VB-11, VT-11); and February 16 to June 10, 1945, Japan, Bonins, Ryukyus: AG-17 (VF-17, VBF-17, VB-17, VT-17). [http://library.uta.edu/txdisabilityhistory/doc/20006424]

A participant in the USS Hornet Sea, Air and Space Museum Live-Aboard Program can learn: “Carriers do not put out to sea to do battle alone. We were accompanied by two cruisers (USS Northampton [CA-26] and USS Salt Lake City [CA-25]), four destroyers, and a fleet oiler (USS Sabine [AO-25J]). Such a group is designated a “task force” and given a number. We were Task Force 16.2. The ships steam in formation with the carrier at the center, the cruisers close by, and the destroyers a little farther out to provide a screen for the others. This arrangement is not carved in stone and will vary according to circumstances.” [Rev. Robert Lee Consolvo, A Firsthand Account Of The Sinking Of The USS Hornet, http://communityengagement.whro.org/images/pdf/theWar_ussHornet_consolvo.pdf]

We were glad to spend an afternoon aboard the Grey Ghost (nickname of the 27,000-ton aircraft carrier that downed 1,400 Japanese aircraft and sank 1,250,000 tons of enemy shipping in the Pacific War). We saw on its deck a TBM-3-Avenger Torpedo Bomber, the VT-17 aircraft that scored the first torpedo hits on the Japanese battleship Yamato on 07 April 1945. Upon review, we re-learned the significance of the Battle of Midway (June 2017 marked the 75th anniversary): “Torpedo Squadron Eight from the Hornet was shot down to the last plane, but only after making several hits on four enemy carriers.”

“The Japs Are Defeated. On the two following days planes from Hornet and the Enterprise located the fleeing enemy and further damaged four cruisers and a destroyer. Due to poor visibility and the dispersal of the fleeing Japanese ships, we were unable to come up with them again, and the battle was at an end.” [http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks11/1100731h/V6/V6P.html]

“This battle, fought almost entirely by air and during which the opposing surface ships never even sighted each other, was the first decisive defeat suffered by the Japanese Navy in 350 years. But more important, it ended the period of Japanese offensive activity in the Pacific, removed the threat to Hawaii and the West Coast, and paved the way for our assumption of the offensive in the Pacific—an offensive that through successive stages saw us reconquer the Solomon Islands, Guam, and the Philippines, capture Tarawa, Saipan, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa, break the back of the Japanese Fleet in the Battle of the Philippine Sea and the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and eventually blockade and bomb Japan into submission from her own home waters.” [The Battle Of Midway by Vice-Admiral Frank J. Fletcher, USN]

Here in California we also experienced this year’s San Francisco Comic Con where a celebrity autograph at the “Star Signing” area of the exhibit hall can set you back 100 dollars (like that of Peter Capaldi, the 12th actor to portray sci-fi character Doctor Who from 2013 to 2017). You can meet the comics creators at their table in the “Guest Artist Alley” like Neal Adams whose “Batman work serves as a prototype and inspiration for every illustrator of the character.” [https://sanfrancomiccon.com/guest-bios/neal-adams-bio/]

This is the venue to acquire materials like Mark Fertig’s “Take That, Adolf!: The Fighting Comic Books Of The Second World War” and learn: “Between 1941 and 1945, the greatest super villain to adorn a comic book cover was not the Red Skull or The Joker — it was Adolf Hitler! Yes, Hitler was featured on more comic book covers than any other villain — being pummeled by everyone from Captain America to Wonder Woman, until he was beaten for real by the Allied forces. Take That, Adolf! is a compilation of more than 500 stunningly restored comics covers published during World War II.” [http://www.fantagraphics.com/takethatadolf/]

Finally, here in California we re-read Carlos Bulosan’s America is in the Heart: “When Amado had gone, Macario stopped working and walked the streets aimlessly for weeks, then joined the army the day Corregidor fell to the Japanese.” [p. 323]
Rating: 
Average: 5 (3 votes)

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