July 18, 2018, 5:05 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06864 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00897 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03439 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.50824 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02516 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03326 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03738 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.56345 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03139 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00707 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 32.72248 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02526 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1282 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07195 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.282 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19138 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 374.13568 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03734 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02459 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.14969 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12502 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 53.37133 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.54401 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.76603 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4139 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.31714 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11919 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92375 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19884 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25015 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3334 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51037 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01599 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03902 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01411 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01412 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08949 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.88526 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 168.36105 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13998 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.87012 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14665 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44715 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11858 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.25939 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.1596 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 268.604 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06791 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27993 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.12671 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 807.13885 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0015 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.42478 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01324 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.09923 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.87722 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27646 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 75.63072 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.88806 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 16.81929 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.08952 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00566 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01532 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.39993 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 157.01738 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.13493 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.97982 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.97197 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24762 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05697 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0116 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02562 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17688 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31088 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.98075 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.55578 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.74846 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15104 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.63427 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6382 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29097 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.33283 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35287 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07569 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24767 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.69034 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58456 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15155 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04691 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02764 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00719 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06103 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06077 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.27135 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06898 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.5969 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06802 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07424 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.1686 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 15.92992 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07008 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14699 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25089 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33555 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16567 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02551 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01412 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41499 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 153.24238 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.65221 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 391.8333 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16352 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.624 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24803 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.62213 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04953 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04334 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.09042 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12621 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57118 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 42.3846 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.48981 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 69.93085 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58568 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 145.44945 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 2236.96505 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 430.74192 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06036 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04858 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.48103 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05046 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.48103 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.90563 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.66922 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24782 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 96.98187 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.76322 Zimbabwe dollar

Food contamination

What is Food Poisoning?
Food poisoning is a variety of illnesses caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria, toxins or chemicals. This is more common during holidays and summertime. The symptoms usually include diarrhea, abdominal pains and vomiting. The diarrhea and vomiting could be so severe as to cause extreme dehydration, which, if untreated and unabated, could be fatal.

How does bacterial contamination occur?
Raw food may have bacteria in it or may be contaminated by unsanitary handling. These bacteria then grow and multiply, and when the “infected” food is eaten, the growth and multiplication of the bacteria continue in the stomach or bowel, producing symptoms of food poisoning. This leads to abdominal pains, diarrhea and vomiting, which are part of the body’s defensive ways of getting rid of the offending bacteria. The most common bacteria causing food poisoning is Listeria Salmonella (usually from poultry or infected eggs, specifically duck eggs), Clostridia (contamination by dirt or flies), and Shigella and Escherichia coli (fecal contamination of food and/or water).

What about toxins?
Food that is kept in a warm place, or improperly preserved, can produce chemicals called toxins. One of the commonest is the Staphylococci toxin from Staphylococci bacteria that can be transmitted by a careless food handler with a boil or infected wound full of the Staph bacteria. Botulism (due to Clostridium Botulinum), from badly tinned or bottled food, is not very common but can be fatal. When the contaminated food is ingested, severe gastrointestinal symptoms may occur.

What chemical poisons are found in food?
There are some common food items that contain natural chemical poisons. Some fungi are very poisonous even when eaten in tiny quantities, causing irregular heart beat, coma or even death. The green areas on potatoes which have been exposed to the light, uncooked kidney beans, some nuts, etc. contain poisonous chemicals, which can cause symptoms of food poisoning if inadequately cooked. Not properly washing fruits and vegetables that are contaminated with pesticides can also cause food poisoning. Some mushrooms are poisonous and not edible.

What bacteria grows on cooked rice?
Bacillus cereus thrives and multiplies in cooked rice and can cause food poisoning. The bacteria produces chemical toxin which is very resistant and not destroyed even by high temperatures. The best way to prevent this is by refrigerating left over rice, which should be consumed within 48 hours. The symptoms of food poisoning usually start fairly suddenly with abdominal pains, frequently cramping in nature and soon followed by diarrhea. The pains can be persistent for a few days and become worst before an episode of diarrhea or vomiting. Throwing up may cease after a few hours but the diarrhea may continue for days. If the illness is due to bacterial contamination, the symptoms appear about 12-24 hours after ingestion, but if it is due to toxins, the onset of symptoms comes rapidly, usually within minutes after eating the contaminated food. Severe Botulism begins after about 12 hours with vomiting, abdominal cramps, and may culminate in paralysis and coma.

Is food poisoning dangerous?
Obviously, yes, as discussed above. In young children and among the elderly, dehydration is the main danger. Vomiting and diarrhea can result in a rapid loss of body fluids and electrolytes. This can disrupt the very delicate chemical balance in the body and, if not treated early, can lead to coma and even death. Botulinum and Staph toxins are in themselves dangerous, and the poisoning can be fatal, if not managed in a timely and proper fashion.

How do we prevent food poisoning?
Good environmental and personal hygiene, proper food preparation, handling and storage, avoidance of questionable food (fruit or potato salad and dishes sautéed with tomato that have been exposed for more than an hour at a party or picnic under hot weather, mussels and other shelled foods that remain closed after cooking, poultry or meats (hamburgers, etc) that are not thoroughly cooked, and canned goods that are of questionable freshness, that are “expired,” or with bulging top, are some basic preventive measures that can be taken to prevent food poisoning. The prudent practice and common sense dictum is “if in doubt, discard.”

What is the mainstay of therapy?
This depends on the cause of the food poisoning: bacteria, toxin or chemical. But basically, oral and/or intravenous fluid replacement is the key to prevent further dehydration from fluid and electrolyte loss from diarrhea and vomiting, which could be life-threatening. Young children and the elderly can become very ill fast, since they succumb rapidly to dehydration, so medical consultation, or even hospitalization, may be needed early. Antibiotics may be given where indicated to clear up the infection, but as a rule they are usually not used because they may sometimes worsen the condition. Fortunately, most of the food poisoning cases respond well to fluid replacement. Possible botulism patients should be hospitalized without delay. The stomach may be pumped out and botulism anti-toxin given to counteract paralysis. Those who are very ill may need ventilator support in the ICU. An antidote may be needed for fungal food poisoning. All the evaluation and decision on the management are best handled by the attending physician. After surviving the acute stage, the patient is expected to recover fully with excellent prognosis. However, just like most other illnesses, food poisoning is best prevented. In majority of situations, this is within our
power.

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Column of the Day

Tearing down the house (Second of a series)

Jego Ragragio's picture
By Jego Ragragio | July 18,2018
‘The draft Federal Constitution is a clear example of tearing a house down in order to install a new door—where the new door goes into an existing door jamb. There’s barely anything new here, and the few things that are new, don’t actually need a constitutional amendment.’

Opinion of the Day

Heed this constitutional expert’s warning

Ellen Tordesillas's picture
By ELLEN TORDESILLAS | July 18, 2018
‘The critique of Gene Lacza Pilapil, assistant professor of Political Science at the University of the Philippines-Diliman, one of the resource persons, should warn us about the draft Federal Constitution produced by the Duterte-created Consultative Committee.’