March 25, 2017, 9:53 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07295 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.48788 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03556 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3095 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02607 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03556 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03973 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59217 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03602 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00747 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.62574 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02782 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13667 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06237 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.30066 Bhutan Ngultrum
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1 Philippine Peso = 397.69567 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03968 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02656 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01978 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 13.15634 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13692 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 57.86254 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.93802 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03496 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49851 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.5151 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13724 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93127 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1644 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.28863 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35856 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45093 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01845 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04108 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01589 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01592 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08837 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.86869 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 183.55185 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1458 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.10191 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1543 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46583 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13612 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.34644 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.70143 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 264.73977 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07242 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.29991 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.46047 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 644.02066 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.20501 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.54927 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01405 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21154 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04112 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37288 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 78.68693 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 9.14978 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.87843 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.29479 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00604 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01629 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.28526 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.01152 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.90465 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.01549 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 1.78784 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24851 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06056 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01233 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02811 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19785 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38468 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.12515 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.19507 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.70878 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15892 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.09178 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.69785 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30671 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.24096 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3761 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08802 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24708 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.25745 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58244 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16898 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0729 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02831 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00765 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06437 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06286 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08244 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0787 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.14024 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07233 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08402 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.13951 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.2352 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07449 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15454 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26917 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13244 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17566 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02783 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0159 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44112 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 142.70957 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.90584 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 452.14739 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17327 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.23004 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24791 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.68872 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04503 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04577 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0722 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13328 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60552 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.25904 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53754 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.25546 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.55781 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 70.42114 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19815 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 451.90703 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.11462 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05075 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 12.09416 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05364 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 12.176 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18852 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.96524 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24804 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 103.08899 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.18911 Zimbabwe dollar

The far times: Sideward

ANDALUSIA, 1492, it is the Spanish Inquisition, and Aguilar de Nerha of the Assassin’s Brotherhood is deployed to rescue Prince Ahmed de Granada from the Templars who are coercing Sultan Muhammad XII (Prince Ahmed’s father) to surrender the Apple of Eden.

In this world, the Assassin’s Brotherhood and the Templar Order are battling for possession of the Apple of Eden (which is the genetic code to man’s free will), with the former defending peace through free will and the latter obsessed with peace through mind-control. The Brotherhood’s members are fitted with wrist blades and the Order is composed of monks and knights. Who are the good guys and who are the villains?

Welcome to Michael Fassbender’s “Assassin’s Creed” film-universe that extends Ubisoft’s “Assassin’s Creed” action-adventure and pseudo-historical video-game series. This is a genre played by millions of gamers and the movie explores the concept of genetic memories. As a bonus feature in the motion picture’s official website, a fan inputting his surname and geographic location into an app will discover that he may be distantly related to Japanese shogun Oda Nobunaga and Mongol warlord Genghis Khan.

The big-screen extension of the “Assassin’s Creed” game-play also offers an opportunity to look into real-world events involving political killings, conspiracies and corporatist agendas. Samples:

(1) “Victor Hugo declared in his Les Orientales (1829) that Spain also was oriental. This perception owed mainly to the rich heritage of Islamic architecture left behind by the Moorish rule on the Iberian Peninsula...As Renaissance started to conquer Europe, centuries of Moorish rule in the Iberian Peninsula was brought to an end in 1492, with the conquest of Granada by the Catholic Kings...the Muslim empire of the Morisco-Spaniards that enjoyed a prosperous civilization for eight centuries was almost completely annihilated.” [Arda and others, “Reconquering Andalusia: The Muslim Cities of the West,” American International Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 3, No. 9, September 2013]

(2) Andalusia is the region with the highest concentration of Gitanos in Spain. [Report on the situation of Roma and Sinti in the OSCE Area, The Hague, 10 March 2000]

(3) “In 1492, unlike the Spanish Jews, the Spanish Muslims had not yet received the ultimatum to either convert to Christianity or to leave the Peninsula. But as early as 1499, Muslims of Spain knew that the same prospect presented to the Jewish communities would be enforced upon them. In 1501 a royal decree was made requiring the Muslims of Granada to convert to Christianity or face exile. This capitulation translated into conversion activities throughout the different kingdoms of Spain from 1501 to 1526. In 1501 the Granadan Muslims were baptized, in 1502 the same activity spread to Castile. By 1526, the Muslims of Granada, Castile, Aragon, Valencia, Extremadura and elsewhere in Spain had converted.” [Bahrami, Beebe, “The Persistence of the Andalusian Identity in Rabat, Morocco” (1995). Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. 1176]

(4) “The peasants of all the villages of Andalusia are rising, united by the ardent wish to smash reaction and to halt the advance of fascism.” [Dolores Ibárruri, “Discipline, Calm, Vigilance!” Radio Broadcast, Madrid, July 29, 1936]

(5) “It was in the poverty-stricken parts of Spain–mainly in Andalusia and in Catalonia–that the anarchists advocated resort to ‘propaganda by deed.’ During the period from 1882 to 1886, anarchist groups such as Mano Negra engaged in expropriation and murdered more than 20 leading figures.” [The History Of Terrorism From Antiquity To Al Qaeda. Edited by Gérard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007, p. 119]

(6) “It is strange that Manila has pursued this commerce for 140 years without any protest from Andalusia until now; the decadence of the latter is due rather to lack of economy in the use of their wealth than to the competition of Filipinas; and Andalusia has always encountered trouble, since the persons interested in the greater part of the lading of the galleons and fleets have been and are foreigners—French, English, and Dutch.” [Of what was done in Manila on receiving the decree of October 27, 1720...Reply from the commerce of Andalucia. In: The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume XLIV, 1700-1736, Editors: Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson]

(7) “Doña Victorina has added to her false frizzes and to her Andalusization, if we may be permitted the term, the new custom of driving the carriage horses herself.” [José Rizal, Epilogue, The Social Cancer]

(8) “It is as if I see the mujahids given victory in the Arabian Peninsula...The noble people in the states will renounce (the regimes) and restore the rights of the Umma which these collaborating regimes had snatched away...After that, the throngs will apply themselves (by the aid of God) to liberating Jerusalem and that which surrounds it and liberating Bukhara, Samarkand, Andalusia, and all of the lands of the Muslims. Then we will begin liberating the earth and humanity from the hegemony of unbelief...” [Abu Bakr Naji. The Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Stage Through Which the Umma Will Pass. Translated by William McCants. John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University. 23 May 2006. Page 144]

So much for the setting of the story. Meanwhile, the Order has been a real force in history.

(1) “The original Knights Templar was a mediaeval military order during the Crusades (1129-1312 A.D.), charged with defending pilgrims in the Holy Land, known for its members’ piety, military prowess – and wealth. The Mexican Knights Templar combined the religious fervour of La Familia and the martial culture of the Zetas. They were governed by a written code of ethics positioning Knights as temporal intermediaries between the community and their unjust oppressors (the state and other criminal rivals).” [James David Robert Cockayne. Hidden Power: The Strategic Logic of Organized Crime. Sicily, New York and the Caribbean, 1859- 1968, and Mexico and the Sahel. Thesis. King’s College London]

(2) There is demonstrable continuity between German Nazism and Andres Breivik’s vision of a new caste of Knights Templars repelling Muslims from Europe’s citadel. [Roger Griffin, “Studying Fascism in a Postfascist Age. From New Consensus to New Wave?” Fascism 1 (2012) 1–17]

(3) “The knights of St. John, the Teutonic knights, or the Templars–the latter of these, besides the grand-master and grand-priors, and religious nuncios, had also some resemblance to the Assassins in their spirit of political interference and secret doctrine.” [Joseph, Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall. The History of the Assassins: Derived from Oriental Sources. London: Smith and Elder, Cornhill, 1835, p. 80]

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