September 21, 2017, 2:06 am
Facebook iconTwitter iconYouTube iconGoogle+ icon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07179 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17553 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03474 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33168 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02434 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03495 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03909 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.57584 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03196 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00736 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.8794 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01955 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02626 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13468 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06076 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01955 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.25293 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19814 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 391.32134 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03905 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02381 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01878 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.19703 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12797 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 56.56763 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.20407 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01955 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.80414 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42683 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.47146 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12175 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92005 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.16386 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25592 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3448 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45563 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01636 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0398 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0144 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01438 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08637 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.87373 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 174.19859 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14252 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.99648 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15278 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45582 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12205 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.20133 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.05786 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 258.65911 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06872 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.25233 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.81079 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 654.02658 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07584 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.54613 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01384 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17369 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00743 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.34064 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.2025 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.08053 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.59187 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.0045 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00588 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01603 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.62568 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 161.53245 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.42533 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98769 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.27717 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25762 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05959 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01213 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02655 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18266 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34275 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.00176 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.48554 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.84988 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15735 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.05629 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65031 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30336 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.99922 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34428 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08176 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25704 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.88038 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5933 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15326 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 1.99961 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02667 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00752 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01955 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06351 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06226 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.05629 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06996 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 110.44762 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07117 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07527 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.12619 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.18804 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0733 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15296 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26388 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13018 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15555 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02627 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0144 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43405 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.59891 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.88741 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 400.87765 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17103 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.06607 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25709 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64621 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04766 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04368 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06714 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13149 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58751 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.66693 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51173 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.19156 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01955 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56626 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 157.93589 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19498 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 444.15559 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06353 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04908 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.72635 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05278 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.62119 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.9398 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.88468 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25718 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 101.43667 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.07389 Zimbabwe dollar

The far times: Sideward

ANDALUSIA, 1492, it is the Spanish Inquisition, and Aguilar de Nerha of the Assassin’s Brotherhood is deployed to rescue Prince Ahmed de Granada from the Templars who are coercing Sultan Muhammad XII (Prince Ahmed’s father) to surrender the Apple of Eden.

In this world, the Assassin’s Brotherhood and the Templar Order are battling for possession of the Apple of Eden (which is the genetic code to man’s free will), with the former defending peace through free will and the latter obsessed with peace through mind-control. The Brotherhood’s members are fitted with wrist blades and the Order is composed of monks and knights. Who are the good guys and who are the villains?

Welcome to Michael Fassbender’s “Assassin’s Creed” film-universe that extends Ubisoft’s “Assassin’s Creed” action-adventure and pseudo-historical video-game series. This is a genre played by millions of gamers and the movie explores the concept of genetic memories. As a bonus feature in the motion picture’s official website, a fan inputting his surname and geographic location into an app will discover that he may be distantly related to Japanese shogun Oda Nobunaga and Mongol warlord Genghis Khan.

The big-screen extension of the “Assassin’s Creed” game-play also offers an opportunity to look into real-world events involving political killings, conspiracies and corporatist agendas. Samples:

(1) “Victor Hugo declared in his Les Orientales (1829) that Spain also was oriental. This perception owed mainly to the rich heritage of Islamic architecture left behind by the Moorish rule on the Iberian Peninsula...As Renaissance started to conquer Europe, centuries of Moorish rule in the Iberian Peninsula was brought to an end in 1492, with the conquest of Granada by the Catholic Kings...the Muslim empire of the Morisco-Spaniards that enjoyed a prosperous civilization for eight centuries was almost completely annihilated.” [Arda and others, “Reconquering Andalusia: The Muslim Cities of the West,” American International Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 3, No. 9, September 2013]

(2) Andalusia is the region with the highest concentration of Gitanos in Spain. [Report on the situation of Roma and Sinti in the OSCE Area, The Hague, 10 March 2000]

(3) “In 1492, unlike the Spanish Jews, the Spanish Muslims had not yet received the ultimatum to either convert to Christianity or to leave the Peninsula. But as early as 1499, Muslims of Spain knew that the same prospect presented to the Jewish communities would be enforced upon them. In 1501 a royal decree was made requiring the Muslims of Granada to convert to Christianity or face exile. This capitulation translated into conversion activities throughout the different kingdoms of Spain from 1501 to 1526. In 1501 the Granadan Muslims were baptized, in 1502 the same activity spread to Castile. By 1526, the Muslims of Granada, Castile, Aragon, Valencia, Extremadura and elsewhere in Spain had converted.” [Bahrami, Beebe, “The Persistence of the Andalusian Identity in Rabat, Morocco” (1995). Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. 1176]

(4) “The peasants of all the villages of Andalusia are rising, united by the ardent wish to smash reaction and to halt the advance of fascism.” [Dolores Ibárruri, “Discipline, Calm, Vigilance!” Radio Broadcast, Madrid, July 29, 1936]

(5) “It was in the poverty-stricken parts of Spain–mainly in Andalusia and in Catalonia–that the anarchists advocated resort to ‘propaganda by deed.’ During the period from 1882 to 1886, anarchist groups such as Mano Negra engaged in expropriation and murdered more than 20 leading figures.” [The History Of Terrorism From Antiquity To Al Qaeda. Edited by Gérard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007, p. 119]

(6) “It is strange that Manila has pursued this commerce for 140 years without any protest from Andalusia until now; the decadence of the latter is due rather to lack of economy in the use of their wealth than to the competition of Filipinas; and Andalusia has always encountered trouble, since the persons interested in the greater part of the lading of the galleons and fleets have been and are foreigners—French, English, and Dutch.” [Of what was done in Manila on receiving the decree of October 27, 1720...Reply from the commerce of Andalucia. In: The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume XLIV, 1700-1736, Editors: Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson]

(7) “Doña Victorina has added to her false frizzes and to her Andalusization, if we may be permitted the term, the new custom of driving the carriage horses herself.” [José Rizal, Epilogue, The Social Cancer]

(8) “It is as if I see the mujahids given victory in the Arabian Peninsula...The noble people in the states will renounce (the regimes) and restore the rights of the Umma which these collaborating regimes had snatched away...After that, the throngs will apply themselves (by the aid of God) to liberating Jerusalem and that which surrounds it and liberating Bukhara, Samarkand, Andalusia, and all of the lands of the Muslims. Then we will begin liberating the earth and humanity from the hegemony of unbelief...” [Abu Bakr Naji. The Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Stage Through Which the Umma Will Pass. Translated by William McCants. John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University. 23 May 2006. Page 144]

So much for the setting of the story. Meanwhile, the Order has been a real force in history.

(1) “The original Knights Templar was a mediaeval military order during the Crusades (1129-1312 A.D.), charged with defending pilgrims in the Holy Land, known for its members’ piety, military prowess – and wealth. The Mexican Knights Templar combined the religious fervour of La Familia and the martial culture of the Zetas. They were governed by a written code of ethics positioning Knights as temporal intermediaries between the community and their unjust oppressors (the state and other criminal rivals).” [James David Robert Cockayne. Hidden Power: The Strategic Logic of Organized Crime. Sicily, New York and the Caribbean, 1859- 1968, and Mexico and the Sahel. Thesis. King’s College London]

(2) There is demonstrable continuity between German Nazism and Andres Breivik’s vision of a new caste of Knights Templars repelling Muslims from Europe’s citadel. [Roger Griffin, “Studying Fascism in a Postfascist Age. From New Consensus to New Wave?” Fascism 1 (2012) 1–17]

(3) “The knights of St. John, the Teutonic knights, or the Templars–the latter of these, besides the grand-master and grand-priors, and religious nuncios, had also some resemblance to the Assassins in their spirit of political interference and secret doctrine.” [Joseph, Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall. The History of the Assassins: Derived from Oriental Sources. London: Smith and Elder, Cornhill, 1835, p. 80]

Do you believe in the Creed?
Rating: 
No votes yet

Column of the Day

The war on drugs flawed?

By NESTOR MATA | September 21,2017
‘President Duterte said that he never condoned the killing of children and adults in his war against illegal drugs.’

Opinion of the Day

Two steps behind

By BERNARD KARGANILLA | September 21, 2017
‘Walk away if you want to. It’s okay if you need to.’