February 27, 2017, 9:41 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07302 UAE Dirham
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.3076 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02588 Australian Dollar
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06184 Brazilian Real
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1 Philippine Peso = 12.85544 Chilean Peso
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.01988 Cuban Peso
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.93219 Dominican Peso
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.29392 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31219 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44959 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04095 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01599 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.016 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.09045 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.86677 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 184.88765 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14616 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.06463 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15432 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4659 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13889 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2929 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.78047 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 265.12229 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07314 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.32675 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.48379 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 644.3428 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.15749 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.552 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01406 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.23205 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0511 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37413 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.08332 Cambodia Riel
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1 Philippine Peso = 17.8962 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.55518 Korean Won
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1 Philippine Peso = 6.20879 Kazakhstan Tenge
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1 Philippine Peso = 3.02386 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 1.78962 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25731 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06062 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01234 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02836 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2006 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.39501 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.15033 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.18234 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 49.05548 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15894 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.06443 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.70292 Mauritius Rupee
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.39484 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08833 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25788 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.26367 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58764 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16612 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.15947 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02762 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00765 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01988 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06467 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06313 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08471 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08098 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.13342 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0724 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08469 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.14806 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.21754 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07456 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15464 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26809 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12726 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17945 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02797 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.016 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44156 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 147.08689 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.83714 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 460.37979 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17344 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.24021 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2572 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.69258 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04549 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04466 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07141 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13322 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.61127 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.28316 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53748 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.12746 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01988 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56154 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 66.61364 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19835 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 452.89321 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.10698 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05043 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 12.31318 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05369 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 12.37423 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.23026 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.97017 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25727 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 103.19149 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.19626 Zimbabwe dollar

The far times: Sideward

ANDALUSIA, 1492, it is the Spanish Inquisition, and Aguilar de Nerha of the Assassin’s Brotherhood is deployed to rescue Prince Ahmed de Granada from the Templars who are coercing Sultan Muhammad XII (Prince Ahmed’s father) to surrender the Apple of Eden.

In this world, the Assassin’s Brotherhood and the Templar Order are battling for possession of the Apple of Eden (which is the genetic code to man’s free will), with the former defending peace through free will and the latter obsessed with peace through mind-control. The Brotherhood’s members are fitted with wrist blades and the Order is composed of monks and knights. Who are the good guys and who are the villains?

Welcome to Michael Fassbender’s “Assassin’s Creed” film-universe that extends Ubisoft’s “Assassin’s Creed” action-adventure and pseudo-historical video-game series. This is a genre played by millions of gamers and the movie explores the concept of genetic memories. As a bonus feature in the motion picture’s official website, a fan inputting his surname and geographic location into an app will discover that he may be distantly related to Japanese shogun Oda Nobunaga and Mongol warlord Genghis Khan.

The big-screen extension of the “Assassin’s Creed” game-play also offers an opportunity to look into real-world events involving political killings, conspiracies and corporatist agendas. Samples:

(1) “Victor Hugo declared in his Les Orientales (1829) that Spain also was oriental. This perception owed mainly to the rich heritage of Islamic architecture left behind by the Moorish rule on the Iberian Peninsula...As Renaissance started to conquer Europe, centuries of Moorish rule in the Iberian Peninsula was brought to an end in 1492, with the conquest of Granada by the Catholic Kings...the Muslim empire of the Morisco-Spaniards that enjoyed a prosperous civilization for eight centuries was almost completely annihilated.” [Arda and others, “Reconquering Andalusia: The Muslim Cities of the West,” American International Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 3, No. 9, September 2013]

(2) Andalusia is the region with the highest concentration of Gitanos in Spain. [Report on the situation of Roma and Sinti in the OSCE Area, The Hague, 10 March 2000]

(3) “In 1492, unlike the Spanish Jews, the Spanish Muslims had not yet received the ultimatum to either convert to Christianity or to leave the Peninsula. But as early as 1499, Muslims of Spain knew that the same prospect presented to the Jewish communities would be enforced upon them. In 1501 a royal decree was made requiring the Muslims of Granada to convert to Christianity or face exile. This capitulation translated into conversion activities throughout the different kingdoms of Spain from 1501 to 1526. In 1501 the Granadan Muslims were baptized, in 1502 the same activity spread to Castile. By 1526, the Muslims of Granada, Castile, Aragon, Valencia, Extremadura and elsewhere in Spain had converted.” [Bahrami, Beebe, “The Persistence of the Andalusian Identity in Rabat, Morocco” (1995). Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. 1176]

(4) “The peasants of all the villages of Andalusia are rising, united by the ardent wish to smash reaction and to halt the advance of fascism.” [Dolores Ibárruri, “Discipline, Calm, Vigilance!” Radio Broadcast, Madrid, July 29, 1936]

(5) “It was in the poverty-stricken parts of Spain–mainly in Andalusia and in Catalonia–that the anarchists advocated resort to ‘propaganda by deed.’ During the period from 1882 to 1886, anarchist groups such as Mano Negra engaged in expropriation and murdered more than 20 leading figures.” [The History Of Terrorism From Antiquity To Al Qaeda. Edited by Gérard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007, p. 119]

(6) “It is strange that Manila has pursued this commerce for 140 years without any protest from Andalusia until now; the decadence of the latter is due rather to lack of economy in the use of their wealth than to the competition of Filipinas; and Andalusia has always encountered trouble, since the persons interested in the greater part of the lading of the galleons and fleets have been and are foreigners—French, English, and Dutch.” [Of what was done in Manila on receiving the decree of October 27, 1720...Reply from the commerce of Andalucia. In: The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume XLIV, 1700-1736, Editors: Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson]

(7) “Doña Victorina has added to her false frizzes and to her Andalusization, if we may be permitted the term, the new custom of driving the carriage horses herself.” [José Rizal, Epilogue, The Social Cancer]

(8) “It is as if I see the mujahids given victory in the Arabian Peninsula...The noble people in the states will renounce (the regimes) and restore the rights of the Umma which these collaborating regimes had snatched away...After that, the throngs will apply themselves (by the aid of God) to liberating Jerusalem and that which surrounds it and liberating Bukhara, Samarkand, Andalusia, and all of the lands of the Muslims. Then we will begin liberating the earth and humanity from the hegemony of unbelief...” [Abu Bakr Naji. The Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Stage Through Which the Umma Will Pass. Translated by William McCants. John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University. 23 May 2006. Page 144]

So much for the setting of the story. Meanwhile, the Order has been a real force in history.

(1) “The original Knights Templar was a mediaeval military order during the Crusades (1129-1312 A.D.), charged with defending pilgrims in the Holy Land, known for its members’ piety, military prowess – and wealth. The Mexican Knights Templar combined the religious fervour of La Familia and the martial culture of the Zetas. They were governed by a written code of ethics positioning Knights as temporal intermediaries between the community and their unjust oppressors (the state and other criminal rivals).” [James David Robert Cockayne. Hidden Power: The Strategic Logic of Organized Crime. Sicily, New York and the Caribbean, 1859- 1968, and Mexico and the Sahel. Thesis. King’s College London]

(2) There is demonstrable continuity between German Nazism and Andres Breivik’s vision of a new caste of Knights Templars repelling Muslims from Europe’s citadel. [Roger Griffin, “Studying Fascism in a Postfascist Age. From New Consensus to New Wave?” Fascism 1 (2012) 1–17]

(3) “The knights of St. John, the Teutonic knights, or the Templars–the latter of these, besides the grand-master and grand-priors, and religious nuncios, had also some resemblance to the Assassins in their spirit of political interference and secret doctrine.” [Joseph, Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall. The History of the Assassins: Derived from Oriental Sources. London: Smith and Elder, Cornhill, 1835, p. 80]

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