April 22, 2018, 3:20 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07053 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 1.99923 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03418 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38677 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02467 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03418 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03841 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59228 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03034 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00724 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.62742 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02503 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13175 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06526 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26032 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18403 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 384.48243 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03837 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02421 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01858 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.41406 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12052 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 52.12791 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.7778 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.71039 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.39282 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.39601 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11551 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94891 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1798 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24262 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33916 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52276 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01551 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03865 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01348 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01349 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08525 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89975 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 172.80584 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14089 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.95007 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15072 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45249 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11491 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24505 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.8093 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 264.60534 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06739 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26727 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.73862 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 806.60649 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.91031 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.37565 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01361 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06171 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92145 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.32194 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 76.97331 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.61206 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.28442 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.40042 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00575 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01575 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.25043 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.93989 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.9034 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.99693 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.50451 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22892 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05855 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01192 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02543 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17577 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31452 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94968 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.52333 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.86134 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15521 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.76013 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64144 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29902 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.70175 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35007 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07459 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22915 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.87536 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59554 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14884 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01652 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02629 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00739 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06176 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06241 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21836 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06459 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.04187 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0699 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07223 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.16816 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.22066 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07202 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14768 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25792 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34667 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.161 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02513 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01349 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42646 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.53351 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.79316 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 380.06338 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16804 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.89015 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22917 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.599 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04602 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04292 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07736 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12961 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56365 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.7488 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.50259 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.84694 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54158 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 154.65719 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1139.831 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 437.43038 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00538 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04922 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.16881 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05185 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.16881 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.83983 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.79931 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2292 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 99.66391 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.95026 Zimbabwe dollar

Discussing Federalism with my cabbie

AS mentioned in this space last Monday, Roger, my Coupon Taxi driver, was a Duterte voter who remained supportive of the President but had issues about how the Administration was handling certain situations. Of particular interest to him was the apparent kid gloves treatment being afforded to both Peter Lim and Kerwin Espinosa, confessed drug lords, in stark contrast to the way a kid like Kian delos Santos is gunned down in cold blood.

 “Pera-pera lang talaga ‘yan,” he told me, adding that such is a fact of life whoever is President of the Philippines. It was interesting how this admission from Roger did not in any way shake his faith in the President.

Then our conversation turned to the question of Federalism and I asked him - did he think it would work?

He started off by saying that since America was a federalized country “Siguro ok naman siya.” His opening surprised me - though I suspect that more Filipinos know that the USA is federalized than Americans are able to point out the Philippines in a world map.

Paano po ba naging Federal ang America? I asked him. He looked at me through the rear view mirror, and admitted that he didn’t know. In fact, he said, “Basta Alam KO Isa silang Federal.” Not surprisingly, he could not explain beyond that general statement how - and why - America is a federal republic.

When he threw the question to me (Paano po ba?) I was almost ready to relate to him the colonies that struggled against Great Britain but he followed it up with another question (knowing that I had arrived from Palawan): “Di po ba mayaman ang Palawan? Magsosolo po ba sila?”

And then the kicker: “Ano po ba ang pananaw ninyo?”

I told him of Unladbayan, the group of socio civic leaders that then VP Salvador Laurel and his good friend (and my boss) Enrique Zobel put together in 1989 and how Federalism was one of its main planks. I told him I have always felt that our regions have not been given the proper opportunity to flourish - that’s why many provinces remain poor.

But, I added, I didn’t believe in “Federalism by instant fiat” - that is, by revising our Constitution to mandate the creation of a Federal Republic — unless there was a transition period of maybe fifteen years. The need for such a long transition period is because we are going to Federalize in a reverse fashion - by creating sub-states where none exist, and by giving the sub-States enough time to flourish.

So I explained to him how America did it. I told him that before there even was a United States, first there were the States - thirteen colonies who revolted against the English King and formed a loose union of States which later became a federation under one Constitution. The US experience was to be no different from the experiences of other federalized nations - sub-States existed prior to the federal Republic, with the creation of the Federal set up an actual cession of Powers by the sub States who were now coming together to become one bigger whole.

The Philippines is the exact opposite. We have to create our sub States, our regions. We have to tell Laguna and Batangas, Quezon and Cavite and Rizal that they will be together, and convince Palawan that she will be lumped with Mindoro, Romblon and Marinduque. “But they already are,” you might say - and I would answer yes and no. Yes, in the sense that they are so classified under a very loose regionalization that has no bearing on how wealth and income is shared. But once it becomes clear to, say, a Palawan that its wealth will now have to be shared with provinces within its region (or sub-State), do you think Palawan will want to be lumped with Mindoro, Marinduque and Romblon or with Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas and Quezon?

In fact I asked him - “Ka Roger, kung kayo ang Palawan, Saan ninyo mas gustong sumama?” And he of course preferred to be lumped with the more affluent provinces. Could you blame him?

That’s why, I said, I will impose a fifteen year transition to Federalism. The first five years will be creating the Regions - whether this be based on our Marcos-era regional groupings plus a few added over the years, or be based on a totally new configuration that, say, has the whole Negros island of two provinces as part of one region. Five years will be needed for the new groupings to sink in and for people in the same region to get used to each other. And within those five years we could redo groupings if some folks simply don’t want to be in the same boat (so to speak) as others.

Then the second five year period will be the period of increasing regional regulations and even legislation. From year 6 to 10 we should observe a growing competence in regional administration and everything that went with increasing self-governance. This would also mean an adaptation of the legal regime, where the Philippine Supreme Court becomes more and more a Federal Court deciding on conflicts of law cases.

And the last five-year period, from year 11 to 15, will be the fine tuning years. So that by year 16 the Congress of the Philippines will give way to the Federal Assembly and the new President will be head of state of the Federal Republic!

All these, I suggested to Roger, could be initiated under the term of PRRD. But all these cannot be a justification for term extension because elections will continue under the present set up until year 16 when full transition takes place.

By the time I got to this point we were at our destination, and Roger was thanking me for enlightening him on federalism. I cautioned him that this was only my point of view, that others thought differently, and that some insist that Federalism can happen now. That’s what’s need to be discussed very well, I said, because if we rushed into this we may be creating more problems than solving it.

And that’s how we parted.
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