July 19, 2018, 11:16 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.0687 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01833 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03442 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51646 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02528 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0333 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03741 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.57108 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03151 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00707 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 32.75309 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02527 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12832 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07203 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27899 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19255 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 374.4856 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03737 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02464 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01868 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.20576 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12563 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 53.5578 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.55649 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.77142 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41506 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.32024 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11972 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93303 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19981 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25129 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33389 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51106 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01606 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03917 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01429 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01431 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08962 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.88982 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 168.66816 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14005 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.88103 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1468 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44747 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1187 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26057 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.20183 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 269.36027 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06796 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28159 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.25963 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 813.69248 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.99588 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.43547 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01325 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.11107 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.8771 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27484 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 75.70146 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.90311 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 16.83502 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.15413 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00566 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01534 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.4508 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 157.22035 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.15189 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98915 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 3.00412 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24822 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05703 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01161 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02573 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17723 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31076 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.98373 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.78638 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.80995 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15122 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.64048 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64347 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29125 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.40105 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35353 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07589 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24819 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.7153 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58586 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15284 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04293 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02753 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00719 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06114 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06073 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.39618 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0692 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.97905 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06809 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07472 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.18 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 15.95267 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07015 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14747 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25122 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33483 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16573 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02554 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0143 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41538 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 153.38571 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.68088 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 393.68313 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16367 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.633 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24845 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.62252 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04952 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04351 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08966 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12587 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57159 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 42.49906 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49158 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 69.56977 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58277 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 145.09914 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 2239.05724 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 431.12608 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04265 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04883 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.52881 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05051 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.52881 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.90591 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.67265 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24818 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 97.07258 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.76955 Zimbabwe dollar

Discussing Federalism with my cabbie

AS mentioned in this space last Monday, Roger, my Coupon Taxi driver, was a Duterte voter who remained supportive of the President but had issues about how the Administration was handling certain situations. Of particular interest to him was the apparent kid gloves treatment being afforded to both Peter Lim and Kerwin Espinosa, confessed drug lords, in stark contrast to the way a kid like Kian delos Santos is gunned down in cold blood.

 “Pera-pera lang talaga ‘yan,” he told me, adding that such is a fact of life whoever is President of the Philippines. It was interesting how this admission from Roger did not in any way shake his faith in the President.

Then our conversation turned to the question of Federalism and I asked him - did he think it would work?

He started off by saying that since America was a federalized country “Siguro ok naman siya.” His opening surprised me - though I suspect that more Filipinos know that the USA is federalized than Americans are able to point out the Philippines in a world map.

Paano po ba naging Federal ang America? I asked him. He looked at me through the rear view mirror, and admitted that he didn’t know. In fact, he said, “Basta Alam KO Isa silang Federal.” Not surprisingly, he could not explain beyond that general statement how - and why - America is a federal republic.

When he threw the question to me (Paano po ba?) I was almost ready to relate to him the colonies that struggled against Great Britain but he followed it up with another question (knowing that I had arrived from Palawan): “Di po ba mayaman ang Palawan? Magsosolo po ba sila?”

And then the kicker: “Ano po ba ang pananaw ninyo?”

I told him of Unladbayan, the group of socio civic leaders that then VP Salvador Laurel and his good friend (and my boss) Enrique Zobel put together in 1989 and how Federalism was one of its main planks. I told him I have always felt that our regions have not been given the proper opportunity to flourish - that’s why many provinces remain poor.

But, I added, I didn’t believe in “Federalism by instant fiat” - that is, by revising our Constitution to mandate the creation of a Federal Republic — unless there was a transition period of maybe fifteen years. The need for such a long transition period is because we are going to Federalize in a reverse fashion - by creating sub-states where none exist, and by giving the sub-States enough time to flourish.

So I explained to him how America did it. I told him that before there even was a United States, first there were the States - thirteen colonies who revolted against the English King and formed a loose union of States which later became a federation under one Constitution. The US experience was to be no different from the experiences of other federalized nations - sub-States existed prior to the federal Republic, with the creation of the Federal set up an actual cession of Powers by the sub States who were now coming together to become one bigger whole.

The Philippines is the exact opposite. We have to create our sub States, our regions. We have to tell Laguna and Batangas, Quezon and Cavite and Rizal that they will be together, and convince Palawan that she will be lumped with Mindoro, Romblon and Marinduque. “But they already are,” you might say - and I would answer yes and no. Yes, in the sense that they are so classified under a very loose regionalization that has no bearing on how wealth and income is shared. But once it becomes clear to, say, a Palawan that its wealth will now have to be shared with provinces within its region (or sub-State), do you think Palawan will want to be lumped with Mindoro, Marinduque and Romblon or with Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas and Quezon?

In fact I asked him - “Ka Roger, kung kayo ang Palawan, Saan ninyo mas gustong sumama?” And he of course preferred to be lumped with the more affluent provinces. Could you blame him?

That’s why, I said, I will impose a fifteen year transition to Federalism. The first five years will be creating the Regions - whether this be based on our Marcos-era regional groupings plus a few added over the years, or be based on a totally new configuration that, say, has the whole Negros island of two provinces as part of one region. Five years will be needed for the new groupings to sink in and for people in the same region to get used to each other. And within those five years we could redo groupings if some folks simply don’t want to be in the same boat (so to speak) as others.

Then the second five year period will be the period of increasing regional regulations and even legislation. From year 6 to 10 we should observe a growing competence in regional administration and everything that went with increasing self-governance. This would also mean an adaptation of the legal regime, where the Philippine Supreme Court becomes more and more a Federal Court deciding on conflicts of law cases.

And the last five-year period, from year 11 to 15, will be the fine tuning years. So that by year 16 the Congress of the Philippines will give way to the Federal Assembly and the new President will be head of state of the Federal Republic!

All these, I suggested to Roger, could be initiated under the term of PRRD. But all these cannot be a justification for term extension because elections will continue under the present set up until year 16 when full transition takes place.

By the time I got to this point we were at our destination, and Roger was thanking me for enlightening him on federalism. I cautioned him that this was only my point of view, that others thought differently, and that some insist that Federalism can happen now. That’s what’s need to be discussed very well, I said, because if we rushed into this we may be creating more problems than solving it.

And that’s how we parted.
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