March 27, 2017, 10:49 am
Facebook iconTwitter iconYouTube iconGoogle+ icon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07295 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.48788 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03556 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3095 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02607 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03556 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03973 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59217 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03602 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00747 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.62574 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02782 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13667 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06237 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.30066 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20198 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 397.69567 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03968 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02656 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01978 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 13.15634 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13692 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 57.86254 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.93802 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03496 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49851 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.5151 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13724 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93127 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1644 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.28863 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35856 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45093 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01845 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04108 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01589 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01592 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08837 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.86869 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 183.55185 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1458 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.10191 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1543 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46583 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13612 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.34644 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.70143 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 264.73977 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07242 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.29991 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.46047 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 644.02066 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.20501 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.54927 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01405 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21154 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04112 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37288 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 78.68693 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 9.14978 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.87843 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.29479 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00604 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01629 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.28526 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.01152 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.90465 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.01549 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 1.78784 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24851 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06056 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01233 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02811 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19785 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38468 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.12515 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.19507 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.70878 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15892 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.09178 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.69785 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30671 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.24096 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3761 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08802 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24708 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.25745 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58244 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16898 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0729 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02831 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00765 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06437 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06286 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08244 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0787 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.14024 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07233 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08402 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.13951 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.2352 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07449 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15454 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26917 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13244 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17566 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02783 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0159 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44112 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 142.70957 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.90584 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 452.14739 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17327 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.23004 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24791 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.68872 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04503 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04577 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0722 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13328 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60552 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.25904 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53754 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.25546 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.55781 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 70.42114 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19815 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 451.90703 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.11462 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05075 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 12.09416 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05364 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 12.176 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18852 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.96524 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24804 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 103.08899 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.18911 Zimbabwe dollar

Blessed is the warlord

YES, he was Japanese. Yes, he was Christian. And yes, he was a warlord. All three terms were applied to Lord Takayama by the “Japan Times” in reporting that the 16th century figure was beatified this week.

“Ukon, born in 1552 and baptized in his childhood, served as a warrior and was exiled to Manila in 1614 due to the Edo Shogunate’s ban on Christianity...Approval of beatification requires either martyrdom or a miracle to have taken place. Excluding Ukon, 393 Japanese have been granted the status while 42 others have been made saints.” [http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/02/07/national/japanese-christian-warlord-takayama-ukon-beatified/]

It was the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Japan that promoted the warlord’s canonization: “Ukon was often placed in situations where important and decisive life choices had to be made which could not be avoided by a military commander belonging to the powerful ruling class. He stood at the very forefront where the values of God and that of the world come into greatest conflict. Decisive choices that cannot be avoided have to be made by any Christian leader in whatever age. Ukon held clear principles for choosing the path that would lead to God and would lead to correct decisions. To answer to the love of God who, in order to love without limit and to save we sinners, took on himself mankind’s destiny to die—this was Ukon’s basic principle...There was no room for compromise. What moved Ukon was the belief that remaining in the love of God was the road to human happiness.” [“A Man Who Walked The Path Obedience,” https://www.cbcj.catholic.jp]

So, what is his story? In 1563, Takayama (lord of Hida), along with Yuki (lord of Yamashiro) and Kiyohara Geki, and before them, Omura Sumitada of Hizen, were baptized. Ukon was only 12 years old and it was his father, Dario, who was the Daimyo. Ukon would grow up to succeed his father as a Christian feudal lord who was, at the same time, an “active and trusted vassal” of the two shoguns, Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Unfortunately for the 35-year-old daimyo, Hideyoshi in 1587 issued an edict forbidding Christianity and ordered all missionaries to leave Japan. Takayama Ukon was “deprived of fief and status.” [https://www.cbcj.catholic.jp/english/japan/history/1543-1944/]

According to the CBCJ: “The shogunate feared the influence of Ukon, and in 1614 exiled him to the Philippines along with more than 300 Christians. On reaching Manila, they were given a national welcome, but before long Ukon fell gravely ill and died in Manila during the night of February 3, 1615, some 40 days after his arrival there. He was given a national funeral and was buried in the Philippines.”

From the Spanish side: “The persecution of Christians in Japon is more bloody than it has ever been before, and has become as bad as could be imagined. It will suffice to say that in the city of Nangacaqui 30 bars of silver, each one containing about four ducados, are publicly offered to whomsoever may discover a religious. But just as tender plants, because of the cold of winter, take deeper root in the soil, these religious, because of their difficulties, plant themselves more firmly in the faith and bear more plentiful fruit. This has already been demonstrated. Indeed, during the last year more than 50 Japanese have nobly given their lives to the service of Jesus Christ; and almost 2,000 adults have for the first time received the water of holy baptism.” [“Relation of the Events in the Filipinas Islands. And in Neighboring Provinces and Realms, From July, 1618, to the Present Date in 1619,” Dated at Manila, July 12, 1619; The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898: Volume XVIII, 1617-1620. Edited by E. H. Blair and James Alexander Robertson]

The Church of Japan acknowledged the cooperation of its counterpart in Manila in actively pursuing the cause of the “Samurai of Christ,” with the Official News Service of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines having reported: “With persecutors hot on his heels, Takayama, with 300 others, sought refuge in the Philippines, a Catholic country then ruled by Spain and which opened its doors to Japanese Christians. He found sanctuary in Manila’s Dilao district (today’s Paco) which at that time was home to some 3,000 Japanese immigrants, mostly religious refugees like himself...The Spanish government gave him a burial worthy of a Christian and a samurai. Today, about half a million Japanese identify as Catholics; roughly 0.5% of the population...A statue of Takayama in full samurai gear stands at Plaza Dilao.” [http://www.cbcpnews.com/cbcpnews/?p=45511]

The utility of Dom Justo as an icon of Philippine-Japan relations had been cited by two heads of state, one from each country. At the December 2002 state dinner hosted by His Majesty Emperor Akihito in honor of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, then visiting Tokyo, the Filipino Chief Executive “noted that these friendly ties could be traced as far back as the exile of Lord Ukon Takayama, a great Christian samurai, and his family to Manila in 1614.” [http://www.gov.ph/2002/12/04/the-presidents-day-december-4-2002/]

At the return bout with a different Filipino head of government, the same Japanese monarch intoned: “The peoples of the Philippines and Japan enjoyed exchanges with each other through commerce since around the mid-16th century, when a Japan Town was formed in Manila. In the 17th century, however, the Tokugawa shogunate banned Christianity and adopted a policy of national seclusion, forbidding Japanese citizens from traveling overseas and foreign nationals from entering Japan. As a result, the Christian daimyo, or feudal lords, Takayama Ukon and Naito Tadatoshi were exiled to Manila, along with other Japanese Christians, by the Tokugawa shogunate. This year marks the 400th anniversary of Takayama’s death from illness in Manila.” [Remarks by His Majesty the Emperor at the State Banquet in Honor of His Excellency, Benigno Aquino III, President of the Republic of the Philippines, Tokyo, June 3, 2015]

Yes, this may be an instance of two Asian nations sharing an historical moment of Christian heritage in a longer period of conflict and imperialism. Is this also a specimen of “Japan’s soft power viewed through the lens of the Philippines’ commemoration of historical events,” as defined by academia? [Lydia N. Yu Jose, Philippine Political Science Journal, Volume 33, Issue 2, 2012] Memories in Manila have “not proved strong enough to radically challenge Japan’s soft power.” [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01154451.2012.734095?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=rpsj20]

Vatican Radio reported that Pope Francis had sent Cardinal Angelo Amato, Prefect of the Vatican’s Congregation for the Causes of Saints, to preside over the Beatification Mass of Justo Takayama Ukon. Back in the Pacific, a commander-in-chief contemplated a passage to Hades.
Rating: 
No votes yet
Twitter icon
Facebook icon
Google icon
LinkedIn icon
Pinterest icon
Reddit icon
Yahoo! icon
e-mail icon

Column of the Day

Duterte immobilized

By DODY LACUNA | March 24,2017
637 View(s) 0 Comment(s)
‘He should deter the AIDS outbreak victimizing the youth whom he has pledged to protect always.’

Opinion of the Day

Reviving Laguna de Bae (2)

By DAHLI ASPILLERA | March 27, 2017
201 View(s) 0 Comment(s)
‘Industry and residents must be disciplined; penalized. “We are doing all these for the local subsistence fishermen.” – Jaime Medina, LLDA general manager.’